Presentasjon om: "INTERNASJONAL PRIVATRETT Harmonisering av den materielle retten Professor dr. juris Giuditta Cordero-Moss."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:
INTERNASJONAL PRIVATRETT Harmonisering av den materielle retten Professor dr. juris Giuditta Cordero-Moss
Er det behov for lovvalg? Selvforsynte, autonome kontrakter Lett ubevisst inspirert av common law Henter fra common law muligheten til å sette bakgrunnsretten ut av spill Boilerplate-klausuler –Regulerer kontraktstolkningog –anvendelse –Sjelden forhandlet –Ikke tilpasset
”Interpretation” 1.2.2 References in the singular shall include references in the plural and vice versa, and the words denoting natural persons shall include partnerships, firms, companies, corporations, joint ventures, trusts, associations, organisations or other entities (whether or not having a separate legal personality); 1.2.9 refrences to ”construction” and ”construct” include, unless the context otherwise requires, design, procurement, delivery, installation, testing, completion, commisioning, remedying of defects and other activities incidental to the process of construction; 1.2.11 any references to ”parties” shall mean the Seller and the Purchaser and a ”party” shall mean either of them;
”Representations and warranties” Each Party represents and warrants to and for the benefit of the other Party as follows: 11.1 It is a company duly incorporated and validly existing under the laws of...(in respect of the Seller) and of... (in respect of the Buyer), is a separate legal entity capable of suing and being sued and has the power and authority to own its assets and conduct the business which it conducts and/or proposes to conduct; 11.2 Each Party has the power to enter into and exercise its rights and perform and comply with its obligations under this Agreement; 11.3 All actions, conditions and things required by the laws of...to be taken, fulfilled and done in order to enable it lawfully to enter into, exercise its rights under and perform and comply with its obligations under this Agreement, to ensure that those obligations are valid, legally binding and enforceable and to make this Agreement admissible in evidence in the courts of... or before an arbitral tribunal, have been taken, fulfilled and done. 11.4 Its entry into, exercise of its rights under and/or performance of, or compliance with, its obligations under this Agreement do not and will not violate or exceed any power granted or restriction imposed by any law or regulation to which it is subject or any document defining its constitution and do not and will not violate any agreement to which it is a party or which is binding on it or its assets 11.5 Its obligations under this Agreement are valid, binding and enforceable;
“Internasjonale kilder” for internasjonale kontrakter? New Lex mercatoria –Sedvane –Alminnelig anerkjente prinsipper –Samlinger av prinsipper UPICC PECL DCFR CESL –Bransjeorganisasjoners standarddokumenter –Standard kontrakstvilkår
Lovvalg gjelder kun nasjonal rett Roma I art 3: “Law” Roma I fortale pkt 13: Denne forordning er ikke til hinder for, at parterne ved henvisning kan inkorporere ikke-statslige lovbestemmelser eller en international konvention i deres aftale.
Voldgiftsloven § 31 Voldgiftsretten skal anvende de rettsregler som partene har valgt for de materielle tvistespørsmål saken gjelder. … (“rules of law”) Der partene ikke har valgt rettsregler, skal voldgiftsretten anvende de regler som følger av norske lovvalgsregler. (“law”)
Kan “rules of law” regulere en kontrakt uttømmende?
Irrevocable Offer Art. 2.4 Unidroit: Offer is not binding until accepted, but cannot be revoked if it indicates that it is irrevocable (by fixing a time for acceptance or otherwise). Art. 1.4: Principles cannot derogate from overriding mandatory rules of the governing law. Art. 2:202, 1:103 PECL: Idem
Partial Impediment Unidroit: Not regulated (art.1.6: gap filling by autonomous interpretation, 1.8 usages between the parties, generally acknowledged usages) PECL: Not regulated (art.1:106(2): gapfilling by autonomous interpretation, otherwise governing law)
Kan “rules of law” sikre harmonisert rettsanvendelse?
Harmonisert anvendelse av “good faith”? Låneavtale “Art. 13, Covenants”: sende kvartal regnskap innen 3 dager “Upon any breach by the Borrower of any of the obligations listed in article 13, the Bank shall be entitled to terminate this contract with immediate effect.”
Good faith Unidroit: Good faith is general principle (1.7). To be understood as good faith in international trade PECL: General duty to act in good faith (1:201). Autonomous interpretation
ESL 1. Each party has a duty to act in accordance with good faith and fair dealing. 2. Breach of this duty may preclude the party in breach from exercising or relying on a right, remedy of defence which the party would otherwise have ... . 3. The parties may not exclude the application of this Article or derogate from or vary its effects. (Art. 2) In transaction between traders, good commercial practice in the specific situation concerned should be a relevant factor in this context.” (Recital 31)
Good faith in international trade General principle? Generally acknowledged trade usage? Contract practice: No good faith www.trans-lex.org:www.trans-lex.org – Good faith is general principle Awards (no specific standard) CISG (no good faith as duty between parties)... UNIDROIT Principles and PECL