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Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 11 Intrabusiness, E-Government and More (modified for class 22.02.02 by Judith Molka-Danielsen)

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2 Prentice Hall, 2002 1 Chapter 11 Intrabusiness, E-Government and More (modified for class 22.02.02 by Judith Molka-Danielsen)

3 Prentice Hall, 2002 2 Learning Objectives (B2E) business to employee Corporate Portals and the intranets E-government to citizens (B2C) and business (G2B) Describe e-government initiatives peer-to-peer technology in B2E, B2B, and C2C

4 Prentice Hall, 2002 3 Portals portals - web sites serving as initial points of entry or as concentration points for many services. Portal means "doorway or entrance".

5 Prentice Hall, 2002 4 Intrabusiness Communications B2E communication can be between the business and individual employees To provide added services to the employee To help the business function better Intrabusiness EC can be between the business and business units or departments …sometimes portals are used.

6 Prentice Hall, 2002 5 Book Case Reasons: Portal Speeds Product Research and Development B2E Portals provide 1.Fast and easy access to information required to support the design activities and R&D 2.Collaboration tools and database for locating company experts (Intranets, DataWarehousing) 3.Features Strong security Easy integration with legacy systems Built-in intelligent agents Fast seraph engine Powerful knowledge management capabilities

7 Prentice Hall, 2002 6 (B2E) – private services Business to its employees (B2E) Employees electronically order supplies and material needed for work Corporate stores that sell company’s products to employees at a discount Businesses disseminate information on the intranet Employees can buy discounted insurance, travel packages, etc., on corporate intranet Employees can manage fringe benefits take classes and more

8 Prentice Hall, 2002 7 Intrabusiness – business services Between and among units within the business Large corporations consist of independent units that “sell” or “buy” materials, products, and services from each other This type of transaction can easily be accomplished over the intranet Network constructed to link dealerships owned by the corporation Support communication Collaboration Execution of transactions

9 Prentice Hall, 2002 8 Intrabusiness (E2E) for the business Between and among corporate employees (group communications) Large organizations have classified ads on the intranet where employees can buy and sell products and services from each other Especially popular in universities Interconnect their intranets to increase exposure Employees collaborate and communicate using EC technologies

10 Prentice Hall, 2002 9 Intrabusiness Infrastructure Intranet—network architecture designed to serve internal informational needs of a company using Web protocols and tools Provides: Internet capabilities internal to the business Protected firewall access between Internet and business internal system Search engines Tools for communication and collaboration

11 Prentice Hall, 2002 10 Collaborative Commerce Tools- create communities of users Discussion groups by topic (email lists) Message boards (Q&A pages) Chat rooms or instant messaging Experts available at web sites Membership services for industry network members (web page hosting, email address hosting, portals sites with member centric views) Other tools (shared CAD, video conferencing)

12 Prentice Hall, 2002 11 Figure 11-2 Architecture of an Intranet

13 Prentice Hall, 2002 12 Intrabusiness Applications IT supports business processes and can be a substitute for travel. (Intranet is the infrastructure.) Empowerment of the employee (knowledge access) Virtual organizations (distributed workers) Software distribution (distributed tools) Document management Project management Training (education, seminars, conferences) Enhanced transaction processing Paperless information delivery Improved administrative processes

14 Prentice Hall, 2002 13 Enterprise (Corporate) Portals Types of portals Publishing portals Commercial portals Types of portals Personal portals Corporate portals All true, but before we go into the books perspective on Portals… Here is another

15 Prentice Hall, 2002 14 What is a Portal? A web page that pulls information together (Yahoo), Creates simple, up to date, interest based access to information Primary purpose: pull together information, not generate it.

16 Prentice Hall, 2002 15 What is the information management problem? Too much information on the web (infoglut) Too messy, too complex to navigate Corporations want people to stick around longer (to easy to go to another site) Executives have no control over what people see

17 Prentice Hall, 2002 16 How do portals help? Filter information – see only what I care about Uses the Document model - magazines Stickiness – access to content Control – centrally published by the business

18 Prentice Hall, 2002 17 Why were portals created? Reaction to browsing Browsing is a distraction, slow Portals stop browsing

19 Prentice Hall, 2002 18 Categories of Portals Public Web Sites (Yahoo) – keep users around to read ads, read about products Corporate portals – filter and control what the community of users sees, stop browsing, require low user support Individual portals – pages you go to out of interest, access to relevant content, personal, (Stocks, OL results, travel info).

20 Prentice Hall, 2002 19 Corporate portals benefits They support knowledge management Up to date info Simple to use (low user support, little training) Browser client interface, known, no extra software to maintain Easy to see what info is relevant Keep workers from browsing, because they find what they need

21 Prentice Hall, 2002 20 Common characteristics of all portals Simple to use Use the document model Push information to the user Let the user subscribe to the technology (they must be able to personalize it, or they will not use it. It must be enjoyable.)

22 Prentice Hall, 2002 21 Books versus Portals Books Hierarchical structure – organize info Author guided Portable Solitary activity Portal Hyperlink structure – need tools to navigate Self guided – search ability Sometimes portable – need e-book? Social – networks are social Portals may become the way to navigate e-books

23 Prentice Hall, 2002 22 Portal versus Desktop Desktop Access everything (messy, not org. Controlled) Arrange any way (org. Must fix it) Copy-paste-run any application Work with the computer (access file system) Portals Filtered Minimal arrangement ability Read only applications Real only access to file system User resistance to being locked out of desktop. Must work together, and allow user authoring.

24 Prentice Hall, 2002 23 Portal Lessons learned 1.Simple Access to complex info 2.Scalibility – broad range of info, many sources, legacy systems 3.Use document process model (magazine) 4.Send only info that the community cares about 5.Support group activities within an organization 6.Design it so that your suppliers and customers can become members of your portal 7.Provide navigatable access to good content, and make it fun and interesting.

25 Prentice Hall, 2002 24 Figure 11-3 Types of Portals

26 Prentice Hall, 2002 25 Figure 11-4 Corporate Portal as a Gateway to Information Source:

27 Prentice Hall, 2002 26 Enterprise (Corporate) Portals (cont.) Knowledge bases and learning tools Business process support Customer facing sales, marketing, services Collaboration and project support Access to data from disparate corporate systems Personalized pages for users Effective search and indexing tools Internal company information Portal applications

28 Prentice Hall, 2002 27 Figure 11-5 Corporate Portal Framework Source: Compiled by N. Bolloju, City University of Hong Kong, from Aneja et al. (2000) and from Kounadis (2000)

29 Prentice Hall, 2002 28 Example of Intranet and a Portal: Cadence Design Systems Business challenge Support customer’s entire product development cycle (from sales to delivery) Organization must interact (coordinate, communicate) with customers Corporate portal—Web-based single point of information supporting sales process OnTrack uses home page with links to other pages One tool provides all information and data needed All creators of information must add it on OnTrack. They can add a message to the daily newsletter, modify a step in sales process, or update a customer presentation

30 Prentice Hall, 2002 29 Cadence Design Systems (cont.) Lessons learned Difficult task to balance cost of training against return Key to success—unifying technology with process Design structure to satisfy 80% instead of 100% of process Outsourced creation of application Shortened training time for new sales reps

31 Prentice Hall, 2002 30 E-Government: An Overview E-government uses IT and EC to provide: Convenient access to government information and services Delivery of public services Efficient and effective method of conducting business transactions Digital online access to information Online transaction services for citizens

32 Prentice Hall, 2002 31 Major Categories of Applications of E-Government Government-to-citizens Involves dozens of different initiatives enabling citizens to interact with the government from their homes Citizens can: Find all the information they need on the Web Ask questions and receive answers Pay tax and bills Receive payments and documents

33 Prentice Hall, 2002 32 Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont.) Governments Disseminate information Conduct training Help find employment Electronic benefits transfer (EBT) is an example of G2C applications System relies on a single smart card that accesses cash and food benefits Recipients either get electronic transfers to bank account or download to smart card Reduces fraud

34 Prentice Hall, 2002 33 Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont.) Government-to-business and business–to- government E-procurement Large amounts of MROs and materials direct from many suppliers Uses basically a reverse auction system E-auctions Auction surpluses from vehicles to real estate May use 3 rd -party site

35 Prentice Hall, 2002 34 Major Categories of Applications of E-Government (cont.) Government-to-government Intelink—sharing information between intelligence agencies—general services administration Federal case registry—health and human services Procurement marketing and access network— small business administration Government-to-employees—e-services for employees

36 Prentice Hall, 2002 35 Implementing E-Government Stage 1: information publishing/dissemination Individual government departments set up their own Web sites that provide: Information about them Range of services available Contacts for further assistance

37 Prentice Hall, 2002 36 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Stage 2: official two-way transactions Using legally valid digital signatures and secure Web sites, customers: Submit personal information Conduct monetary transactions Customers must be convinced that: System keeps their information private System is free of piracy

38 Prentice Hall, 2002 37 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Stage 3: multipurpose portals Customer-centric governments enhance service delivery Customer needs can cut across department boundaries, portal allows customers to use single point-of-entry to: Send and receive information Process monetary transactions across multiple departments

39 Prentice Hall, 2002 38 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Stage 4: portal personalization Customers can access a variety of services at a single Web site Customers can customize portals with their desired features Requires sophisticated Web programming allowing interfaces Added benefit is that governments get a more accurate read on customer preference Electronic services Non-electronic services

40 Prentice Hall, 2002 39 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Stage 5: clustering of common services All real transformation of government structure takes shape here Customers see a unified package instead of once-disparate services Distinction between departments begins to blur Recognize groups of transactions instead of groups of agencies

41 Prentice Hall, 2002 40 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Stage 6: full integration and enterprise transformation (see next slide) Digital encyclopedia is now: Full-service center Personalized to each customer’s needs and preferences Old walls defining services are torn down Technology integrated across new government structure bridging gap between front and back offices

42 Prentice Hall, 2002 41 Figure 11-6 The Stages of E-Government Source: Deloitte Research (see Wong, 2001).

43 Prentice Hall, 2002 42 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Transformation—change is very slow Implementing G2B Build customer trust by increasing: Privacy Security Confidentiality Plan technology for growth and customer friendliness Manage access channels to optimize value Weigh insourcing vs. outsourcing Include strong change management program

44 Prentice Hall, 2002 43 Implementing E-Government (cont.) Security issues—concerns include: Data about citizens stays secure Privacy of individuals is maintained Developing portals (these portal vendors also support government portals)—Portal Builder—Jasmine ii Portal Non-Internet e-government

45 44 Hvordan fungerer Ebøker? Gruppe 13 Jan Morten Støve, Svein Arild Eikemo, Ingrid Henjum, Hans Jacob Sausjord

46 45 Hva er Ebøker? Definisjon Fysisk innretning Innhold

47 46

48 47 Distribusjonsveier Via fjernbart media/fysisk løsning Via PC tilkoblet Internett Direkte til leseinnretning via fastelefoninett Trådløs til leseinnretningen

49 48 Eksempel på verdikjeder for fysiske bøker ForfatterKundeAgentForlagBokhandel

50 49 Eksempel på verdikjeder for Ebøker Forfatter Kunde Nettportal

51 50 Infrastruktur Teknologikrav Allianser og Modeller

52 51 Policy og Rettigheter Kopiering Kryptering ”Cracking”

53 52 Konklusjon Vil Ebøker ta av?

54 53 Wells Fargo bank Lo205 prosjekt av Heidi Kjersem Eldar Lillevik Erna Senkina Ståle Isaksen

55 54 Oppgave Se på Wells Fargo’s B2B og internasjonale e løsninger. Cyber banking!!

56 55 Fakta om Wells Fargo STOR international bank og forsikrings tilbyder 120 000 ansatte 300 milliarder.(2002) Norges BNP Etablert 1852 gullrush Første nettbank -1995 Estimert 20mill e- bank kunder i år

57 56

58 57 En haug med banker og minibanker i USA Samarbeidsfirma med 6000kontor i 80 land Hk i san fransisco – homsenes stor by Men alle wells fargo kontor har stor selvstendighet Ranking 5 th i assets Mål er å kunne løse alle finansielle oppgaver for private, og firma. Fortune magazine ranked WF the best and safest bank i us.

59 58 Vi deler i 3 segmenter Privat marked (internasjonalt) Liten B2B Stor B2B

60 59 Privatmarkedet Brukervennlighet Online valuta handel Geografi er irrelevant Sanntids kurs oppdatering Forenkler sammenligning av priser Lavere kostnader Amerikanske statsborgere i utlandet Utlendinger er også velkomne Norge innfører også nå internasjonale kontonummer. Eks: NO49 7001 0534 567 (iban)

61 60 Eksempel fra privatmarkedet…

62 61 Judith bor i Molde, men vil opprette en US-bank-konto, for å lure unna litt kapital til nytt svømmebasseng på hytta……

63 62 …. Så hun hopper på første fly fra Årø, som tilfeldigvis går rett til San Francisco…

64 63 Hi! I would like To open an account Please! Slik ble det gjort før….

65 64 Nå er det mye enklere!

66 65 Fordeler privat Billigere (lavere gebyr) Betaling, kontoutskrift, balanse oversikt, lett tilgjengelig Åpen 24timer i døgnet globalt! Automatisk betaling (avtalegiro) Ekstra tjenester (eks. aksjetips, sparetips, låneberegning og konsulentstøtte) Tidsbesparende Være sin egen banksjef!!!!!!!!! Konge!

67 66 Liten B2B E-løsninger- styringsverktøy for lønn, likviditet, kreditt, skatt, sikkerhet, konsulent tjenester Kan ta over alle områder bl.a. økonomi for bedriften Det kan føles sikrere at en stor bedrift styrer økonomi og tilfører kompetanse Siden dette er elektronisk, klarer bedriften selv å ha oversikten

68 67 STOR B2B Wells Fargo blir med som konsulenter, og kreditorer Kommunikasjon med internasjonale konsern gjennom eksempelvis å få tilgang til deres intranet. Wells har stor kompetanse i skatte, aksje og valuta spørsmål, og bedrifter outsourcer slike oppgaver til dem. Med samarbeidspartnere lokalt samt den økende elektroniske datamengde, kan avgjørelser om kreditt etc. gjøres fra USA til f.eks et firma i Norge

69 68 Forts. STOR B2B Tilbyr utenlandske banker- amerikanske bank tjenester Formidler støtter eiendom, bedriftsutvidelse, nyetableringer

70 69 Generelle Ulemper Personlig forhold Vanskeligere å selge på kunden ekstra (impuls salg) Førsteinntrykk Fordommer (sikkerhet) Fysisk adresse å henvende seg til Må ha Internett! Mulighet for overvåking Bankens troverdighet- stabilitet.

71 70 Sammenligning med DNB 50 000 bedrifter har dnb som hovedlevrandør mtp økonomiske forhold som forsikring, lønn, kreditt etc. Jobber også mot å levere full økonomisk pakke til bedrifter og personer

72 71 Konklusjon Wells Fargo har med e-løsninger etablert seg blant de største aktørene på markedet En kombinasjon av profesjonelle aktører lokalt og globalt gjør at de kan ivaretas kundenes interesser i alle segmenter

73 72 Mer Konklusjon E-handel gjør den globale økonomi mindre, og sikrer større effektivitet og lønnsomhet for aktører som vinner. Wells vinner fordi de er på nett. Takk for oss!

74 Prentice Hall, 2002 73 Customer-to-Customer Applications Customer-to-customer e-commerce Classified ads Personal services C2C buyer exchanges Consumer exchanges

75 Prentice Hall, 2002 74 Peer-to-Peer Networks Each workstation (PC) has similar capabilities Benefit of P2P expands the universe of information accessible Characteristics of P2P systems User interface load outside Web browser User computers act as clients and servers Overall system is easy to use System provides connection with other uses Supports “cross-networking” protocols

76 Prentice Hall, 2002 75 Peer-to-Peer Applications P2P applications in C2C Napster—the file-sharing utility Other providers Gnutella dispenses with central database For games try ICQ (the instant messenger-type chat room) can be considered a hybrid P2P technology

77 Prentice Hall, 2002 76 Customer-to-Customer and Peer-to-Peer Applications Commercial applications in business C2C—users sell digital goods directly from their computers rather than go through centralized servers Computer resources and data file sharing—in modern office setting disk drives and printers are shared Intranet business applications—P2P facilitates internal collaboration

78 Prentice Hall, 2002 77 Customer-to-Customer and Peer-to-Peer Applications (cont.) Business-to business People can share information but are not required to send it to an unknown server Companies use P2P architecture as a base for speeding up business transactions Companies can deliver rich, extensible, balanced, two-way collaborative interactions that are: Dynamic In real-time Collaborative Cost-effective Client-focused

79 Prentice Hall, 2002 78 Customer-to-Customer and Peer-to-Peer Applications (cont.) Business-to-consumer—combining P2P with collaborative filtering for product searches Step 1: user enters search keyword Step 2: keyword is sent to 100 peers, which search local indices of Web pages Step 3: those computers also relay query to 100 of their peers until 1,000,000 computers are queried Step 4: resulting URLs are returned to the user, weighted in favor of most recently visited pages and peers with similar interests

80 Prentice Hall, 2002 79 Managerial Issues Intranet content management Designing corporate portals Selling the intranet Accessing the intranet from the outside Connectivity Finding intranet applications Your organization and e-government P2P applications

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