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Nettverk Software Protocol Hierarchies Lag, protokoller og grensesnitt.

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Presentasjon om: "Nettverk Software Protocol Hierarchies Lag, protokoller og grensesnitt."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Nettverk Software Protocol Hierarchies Lag, protokoller og grensesnitt

2 Protocol Hierarchies (3) Eksempel på informasjonsflyten med en protokoll på lag 5.

3 Design Issues for the Layers Addressing –Slik at datapakka kommer fram til riktig mottager Error Control –Feilkontroll, slik at systemet oppdager bit-feil i datapakka Flow Control –Flytkontroll, slik at mottager klarer å ”svelge unna” data som kommer Multiplexing –Multipleksing, slik at flere kan dele samme kommunikasjonslinje Routing –Ruting, slik at data går riktig vei igjennom et nettverk

4 Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Seks forskjellige typer av tjenester (service).

5 Service Primitives Fem service primitives for implementering av en enkel forbindelsesorientert tjeneste (connection-oriented service).

6 Service Primitives (2) Packets sent in a simple client-server interaction on a connection-oriented network.

7 Services to Protocols Relationship The relationship between a service and a protocol.

8 Reference Models The OSI Reference Model The TCP/IP Reference Model A Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model

9 Reference Models The OSI reference model.

10 Reference Models (2) The TCP/IP reference model.

11 Reference Models (3) Protocols and networks in the TCP/IP model initially.

12 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP Models Concepts central to the OSI model Services Interfaces Protocols

13 A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols Why OSI did not take over the world Bad timing Bad technology Bad implementations Bad politics

14 Bad Timing The apocalypse of the two elephants.

15 A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model Problems: Service, interface, and protocol not distinguished Not a general model Host-to-network “layer” not really a layer No mention of physical and data link layers Minor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace

16 Hybrid Model The hybrid reference model to be used in this book.

17 Example Networks The Internet Connection-Oriented Networks: X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM Ethernet Wireless LANs: 802:11

18 The ARPANET (a) Structure of the telephone system. (b) Baran’s proposed distributed switching system.

19 The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design.

20 The ARPANET (3) Growth of the ARPANET (a) December (b) July (c) March (d) April (e) September 1972.

21 NSFNET The NSFNET backbone in 1988.

22 Internet Usage Traditional applications (1970 – 1990) News Remote login File transfer

23 Architecture of the Internet Overview of the Internet.

24 X.21, X.25 og Frame Relay X.21 Linjesvitsjet datanett. Kom i begynnelsen av 1970-årene (Datex) X.25 Pakkesvitsjet datanett. Protokoll. Kom i 1970-årene (Datapak) Frame Relay er en ”forenklet” X.25 protokoll. Kom i 1980-årene

25 ATM Virtual Circuits Asynchronous Transfer Mode (1990) A virtual circuit.

26 ATM Virtual Circuits (2) An ATM cell.

27 The ATM Reference Model The ATM reference model.

28 The ATM Reference Model (2) The ATM layers and sublayers and their functions.

29 Ethernet Architecture of the original Ethernet.

30 Wireless LANs (a) Wireless networking with a base station. (b) Ad hoc networking.

31 Wireless LANs (2) The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system.

32 Wireless LANs (3) A multicell network.

33 Network Standardization Who’s Who in the Telecommunications World Who’s Who in the International Standards World Who’s Who in the Internet Standards World

34 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Main sectors Radiocommunications (ITU-R) Telecommunications Standardization (ITU-T) CCITT Development (ITU-D) Classes of Members National governments Sector members Associate members Regulatory agencies

35 IEEE 802 Standards The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with  are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up.

36 Metric Units The principal metric prefixes.


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