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2    Et eksempel på galakser som har kollidert. Her har en galakse passert tvers gjennom en annen. Resultatet ble som ringer i vann: En ring av intens stjernedannelse sprer seg utover. Foto: ESA/NASA. Av Knut Jørgen Røed Ødegaard

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5 run Verb (of a person or animal) to move quickly, faster than walking  Example: He ran down the road.  Arabic:يَرْكُض  Chinese (Simplified): 跑  Chinese (Traditional): 跑 Czech:běžet  Danish:løbe  Dutch:rennen  Estonian:jooksma  Finnish:juosta  French:courir  German:rennen  Greek:τρέχω  Hungarian:fut  Icelandic:hlaupa  Indonesian:berlari  Italian:correre  Japanese: 走る  Korean: 달리다, 뛰다 Latvian:skriet  Lithuanian:bėgti, bėgioti  Norwegian:løpe  Polish:biegać  Portuguese (Brazil):correrPortuguese (Portugal):correr  Romanian:a alerga  Russian:бежать  Slovak:bežať  Slovenian:teči  Spanish:correr  Swedish:springa  Turkish:koşmak Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary, © K Dictionaries Ltd. English Multilingual Dictionary, © K Dictionaries Ltd.

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7 Aftenposten tirsdag 16.september 2008

8 Aftenposten tirsdag 29.juli 2008

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10 Kaggestad: Lett å bli god til å løpe ARNE HOLE Publisert: kl. 00:01 Aftenposten ARNE HOLE Publisert: kl. 00:01 Aftenposten  For 16 år siden løp fire mann under 13,40 på 5000 meter i NM. I år kom ingen under 14,27. Johan Kaggestad tror han vet hvorfor.  Glemte. I 1988 sluttet Johan Kaggestad i Norges Friidrettsforbund. Ingen ba om at en av Norges mest suksessrike langdistansetrenere gjennom tidene overbrakte kunnskapene sine til nestemann. Det tok mange år før det ble vist interesse for den erfaring som ble samlet. Bortsett fra i Sverige! I dag er norsk mellom- og langdistanse bedrøvelige greier - med noen få unntak.  - Det er enkelt å komme seg opp på et visst nivå i løping. Vi har kunnskap om hvor mye folk må løpe for å bli gode. Den nye generasjonen må ikke tro at det er noen snarveier dit. 80 prosent er basis - og den tuller du ikke med, formaner Kaggestad.  - Vi vet hva de beste har gjort, og de som vil bli like gode må gjøre det samme. De siste 20 prosentene gir rom for kreativitet, og det er der Marius Bakken har vært god, sier Kaggestad.  Ingrid Kristiansens og Grete Waitz' gamle trener ble i fjor høst hentet inn igjen av friidrettssjef Ketil Tømmernes i NFIF. Nå er han fagansvarlig for mellom- og langdistanse og satser på gammel filosofi - sammen med Leif Inge Tjelta.

11 Fakta:  Tilbakegangen  Bredden i norsk mellom- og langdistanse har forsvunnet i løpet av de siste årene. Tallenes tale er klar:  I NM på 5000 meter i 1988 løp ti mann under 14,00. I år var vinnertiden 14,27.  Av de 30 beste tidene på 5000 meter har bare to kommet de siste 12 årene (Marius Bakken og Jim Svenøy).  På meter for menn er de åtte beste tidene minst 14 år gamle.  På maraton for menn er de åtte beste tidene minst ni år gamle.  Neste år er det 50 år siden Audun Boysen løp 800 meter på 1.45,9 på koksgrusen på Bislett. I år har én mann vært under 1,50.  Ingen er under 3,40 på 1500 meter. Lars Martin Kaupang løp på 3.37,4 for 18 år siden.  Bare én mann har løpt fortere på enn verdensrekorden til Ingrid Kristiansen  Ingen jenter er i nærheten av norgesrekordene til Grete Waitz og Ingrid Kristiansen på 1500, 3000, 5000, og maraton.  Ingrids tider på og maraton ville gitt førsteplass på årets verdensstatistikk. Publisert: kl. 00:01 Aftenposten

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13 Vet mye  - Kajakktrener Kjell Tore Solvang forfekter det samme synet som meg; vi trenger ikke å finne opp hjulet på nytt. Vi må ikke la kunnskapen bli borte. I roing og padling har de en treningskultur som har gått i arv. Folk vet hvor mye de må trene for å bli gode, sier Kaggestad, som synes NM i friidrett de siste årene er blitt en nokså trist affære.  - Vi kan ikke gå på akkord med utøvere som ikke vil følge den aksepterte 80-prosentbasisen. Jeg er klar på at det heretter ikke skal gis støtte til dem som ikke tilpasser seg den aksepterte treningskunnskapen som basis. Roere og padlere er helt klare på at hvis man ikke trener det som er akseptert for å lykkes internasjonalt, er de ikke med på landslagssatsingen. Men, det er frivillig å trene det som må til. Vil man ikke det, så er idretten en hobby som klubb og utøver selv får finansiere, mener Kaggestad.  Kaggestad satser bredt, slik han gjorde den gang Norge var en løpernasjon og sikret seg verdenscupen i maraton for lag i Publisert: kl. 00:01 Aftenposten

14 Sans for faggrupper  - Tømmernes bygger faggrupper, og det har jeg veldig tro på. Det er en viktig utfordring å skape gode treningskulturer - få en kultur hvor man vet at man gjør nok riktig. Jeg er også for kreativitet. Men du roter ikke med de 80 prosentene i bånn.  - Ser du lyspunkter?  - Flere. Knut Kvalheim er i en god prosess med Susanne Wigene. Karl Johan Rasmussen er på vei mot noe bra på maraton. Odd Morten Brekke, Kjetil Måkestad og Joachim Brøndbo er også spennende. Trine Pilskog tåler ikke mer trening enn det hun bedriver nå, men har fokusert på det viktigste, sier Kaggestad, som merket seg at maratonvinneren i OL noterte 2,10. I 1982 hadde Norge tre mann (Norge vant verdenscupen for lag) som løp den samme løypa på 2,13. I OL løp bare fire mann under 2,13.  Men det går mot bedre tider igjen. Publisert: kl. 00:01 Aftenposten

15 Tilbakegang på mellom- og langdistanseløp Norge-Norden-Verden Forklaringer-forklaringsmodeller  Play station, kjøring til skole og trening. Manglende bredde, miljø og sult. J.Kaggestad:  80% basis roter du ikke med I.Kristiansen:  Vet ikke, eller kanskje for mange konkurranser (maraton) eller for få (5000m og 10000m)

16 Jogging med vibrasjon  Glem supersko med støtdemping og luftputesåler. Joggeskader skyldes ikke støt mot asfalten, men resonans og vibrasjoner i kroppsvevet, ifølge canadiske forskere.  Når kneet svikter etter en tøff joggerunde er det lett å skylde på harde sammenstøt mot asfalten. Men det er ikke den direkte årsaken, hevder dr. Benno Nigg ved University of Calgary.  Nigg og hans team i universitetets Human Performance Laboratory har i en årrekke forsket på den perfekte idrettsskoen, og utviklet blant annet favorittskoa til David Beckham.  Forskningen har ikke vist noen sammenheng mellom kraften i støtet mot bakken og antall skader hos løpere: Raske løpere treffer bakken med to til tre ganger så stor kraft som langsommere løpere, men får ikke flere skader, ifølge Niggs undersøkelser.  - Folk som løper på hardt eller mykt underlag har samme antall skader, så det er ikke støtet mot bakken som gir skadene. Oppfatningen av støtbelastning som hovedgrunnen til joggeskader er opplagt ikke godt begrunnet., sier Nigg.

17 Vibrasjoner i vevet  Men aktive joggere og løpere får likevel belastningsskader. Støtet når hælen treffer bakken skaper vibrasjoner i det myke kroppsvevet.  - Når du lander på foten går en sjokkbølge opp gjennom kroppen og det myke kroppsvevet, som knehasene eller leggmusklene, og de begynner å vibrere, forklarer Nigg.  - Denne vibrasjonen er ubehagelig og koster energi.  Musklene spennes automatisk for å begrense vibrasjonen, og dess mer de må arbeide, dess mer stressende og belastende er joggingen.

18 Vibrerer i ulik frekvens  Benno Nigg og kollega Katherine Boyer festet sensorer fire steder på kvadriceps-muskelgruppen på forsiden av låret til løpere. De fant forskjeller i mengden av vibrasjon mellom målestedene, som tyder på at vibrasjonen forplanter seg ulikt gjennom beinas vev og muskler.  Vibrasjonene har forskjellig frekvens i forskjellige personer - avhengig av kroppsvekt og hvor trente musklene er. Hvis du velger de gale skoa, risikerer du å forsterke vibrasjonen i kroppsvevet når du løper. Dermed må musklene slite mer med å motvirke effekten, og belastningsskader kan lure rundt hjørnet - selv med fete støtdempersåler.

19 Stol på kroppen  Framtidens sko vil kunne redusere sjokkbølgen og vibrasjonene, og kan gjøre løping til en ny opplevelse, spår Katherine Boyer.  - Løpere vil kunne løpe raskere og yte mer, eller bli mindre slitne og mindre skadeutsatte, sier hun.  Fram til den tid må vi nøye oss med dagens gode, gamle joggesko. Men hvordan skal vi finne skoa som passer oss og vår egen "muskelfrekvens"? Stol på hva kroppen sier, anbefaler Nigg:  - Hvis skoene er ukomfortable, la være å kjøpe dem.  (Forskning.no) Referanse:  Katherine A. Boyer og Benno M. Nigg: Soft tissue vibrations within one soft tissue compartment (Journal of Biomechanics Vol. 39/4)

20 Vibrations - Damages to Nerves  Govindaraju et al., 2006  Rat tail nerves  4 hrs intermittent vibration  60 Hz  Thickening of myelin membrane  Separation of myelin membrane  Increase interstitial space  Myelin membranes  Myelinated fiber  Non myelinated fiber  Control Vibrations

21 Necking et. al., 1992  Vibrations - Muscle Fibers  vibrating rat hind limbs 80 Hz, 5 hrs, 5 days  muscle necrosis (type II > type I)

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23 RRIISSIIKKOOVVUURRDDEERRIINNGG AAVV MMEEKKAANNIISSKKEE VVIIBBRRAASSJJOONNEERR   HELKROPPSVIBRASJONER Overføringen av vibrasjoner til kroppen blir påvirket av frekvens, vibrasjonsretning, kroppsstilling etc. Effekten av vibrasjoner på kroppen er derfor kompleks. Epidemiologiske studier har vist at personer eksponert for helkroppsvibrasjoner over lang tid har en økt risiko for ryggsmerter, skiveutglidning og tidligere degenerative forandringer i ryggrad.

24 HVORDAN PÅVIRKES MENNESKET? HÅND- OG ARMVIBRASJONER   Akutte effekter Akutte effekter av vibrasjon kan være nedsatt blodgjennomstrømning, nedsatt følelse med evt. dårligere finmotorikk og økt muskelaktivering. De ovennevnte akutte effekter kan føre til problemer med å utføre presisjonsoppgaver

25 Soft tissue vibrations within one soft tissue compartment Katherine A. Boyer and Benno M. Nigg  The concept of muscle tuning suggests that vibrations of the soft tissue compartments of the leg initiated by impacts are minimized by muscular activity prior to heel-strike of heel–toe running.  It also provides initial evidence to support the idea that vibration control through muscle tuning may be achieved through changes in energy dissipating properties within the soft tissue compartment.

26 Sports shoes: the shocking truth 5 November 2001  Sports shoes are not designed to help the average punter and may do more harm than good, says an Australian podiatrist. Speaking at the Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport last week, Simon Bartold from the University of South Australia said it was a myth that shoes with softer midsoles provide better cushioning. "To a large degree shoe design doesn't make a lot of difference", said Mr Bartold, a research fellow within the School of Health Sciences.

27  "The perfect model we should be working on already exists — the foot. In fact, shoes with harder midsoles are preferable", he said. The midsole is the part inside the shoe under the foot. Anything placed between the foot and the surface it is hitting interferes with normal proprioreceptive feedback, the conversation going from the foot to the brain, Mr Bartold explained. "So you completely alter the way in which you run, the efficiency and the function with which you run.

28 Etioperen Abebe Bikila vant det olympiske maratonløpet i Roma 1960 og i Tokyo Han er en av de virkelig store legendene innen maratonløpingen. Ikke minst ble han udødelig da han løp barbeint inn til seier i kveldsmørket i Romas gater i gjenskinnet av tusen fakler. Jan Terje NIlsen DNL-Kondis.no

29  The research now is looking at enhancing the foot rather than trying to control it or contain it." This is not new research. The information that harder midsoles attenuate shock better than soft soles has been public since "We've known about it for a long, long time," said Mr Bartold. The problem, he says, is that many sports shoe manufacturers have spent considerable amounts of money marketing certain products and are unwilling to change their marketing focus. "What you are dealing with is a very unusual crossover between hard-core science and a commercial product, and it's an unholy marriage

30 ." Biomechanics, the science behind sports shoe manufacture, is a very active area of research both inside and outside manufacturers' laboratories. "So there is a lot of lie detection going on," Mr Bartold said. But don't give up on sports shoes yet. "There is a widespread acknowledgement now that things have to change," said Mr Bartold, who in addition to his work at the university, advises a sports shoe company. Research that was done on shoes for an athlete for the Olympic Games last year showed he could increase his time by between 0.5 per cent and 3 per cent. "If you can change it by that margin with an athlete of that calibre, you can guarantee a gold medal," said Mr Bartold.

31 Br J Sports Med. Published Online First: 18 April doi: /bjsm Copyright © 2008 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence based? Is your prescription of distance running shoes evidence based? Craig E Richards 1*, Parker J Magin 1 and Robin Callister 1 1 University of Newcastle, Australia 1 University of Newcastle, Australia Accepted 26 March 2008 Abstract  Objectives: To determine whether the current practice of prescribing distance running shoes featuring elevated cushioned heels and pronation control systems tailored to the individual’s foot type is evidence based.  Data sources: Medline (1950-May 2007), CINAHL (1982-May 2007), EMBASE (1980-May 2007), PsychInfo (1806-May 2007), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2nd Quarter 2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (2nd Quarter 2007), SPORTSDiscus (1985-May 2007) and AMED (1985-May 2007)  Review methods: English language articles were identified via keyword and MeSH searches of the above electronic databases. Via these searches and the subsequent review process, controlled trials or systematic reviews were sought where the study population included adult recreational or competitive distance runners, the exposure was distance running, the intervention evaluated was a running shoe with an elevated cushioned heel and pronation control systems individualised to the wearers foot type and the outcomes measured included either running injury rates, distance running performance, osteoarthritis risk, physical activity levels or overall health and wellbeing. The quality of these studies and their findings were then evaluated  Results: No original research was identified either directly or via the findings of the six systematic reviews identified which met the study criteria.  Conclusion: The prescription of this shoe type to distance runners is not evidence based.

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33  And while footwear as an ergonomic aid is not necessary for the average weekend jogger, the wrong shoe, regardless of cost, can potentially cause injury. "Eventually these ideas get down to the level that is used by Joe Average." In the future, Mr Bartold believes we will see radically different running shoes on shop shelves, with considerably less bulk and flexibility where the foot flexes. "I think we need to recognise that the foot is a terrific piece of engineering."

34 For the first time, active outdoor athletes were able to experience the freedom and joy of going barefoot with the protection and sure-footed grip of a Vibram sole. Their response exceeded our wildest expectations. Some customers told us they felt more connected to the earth and more in tune with their bodies. Others discovered an increased sense of balance and greater agility. And many reported health benefits like improved posture and less back pain. All were generous with their praise and their ideas, often suggesting new and creative uses for FiveFingers.

35 THE SCIENCE OF MOTION Newton Running shoes were designed by runners for runners to mimic the advantages of barefoot running. Whether training or racing, Newton Active Membrane Technology™ provides greater shock absorption, greater energy return while promoting the natural and more efficient forefoot strike of barefoot running.

36 Joseph Froncioni, orthopedic surgeon August 22, 2006 ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR AND RUNNING INJURIES  During barefoot running, the ball of the foot strikes the ground first and immediately starts sending signals to the spinal cord and brain about the magnitude of impact and shear, getting most of its clues about this from the skin contact with the surface irregularities of the ground. Take away this contact by adding a cushioned substance and you immediately fool the system into underestimating the impact. Add a raised heel and the shod runner is forced to land on it. Strap the cushioning on tightly with the aid of a sophisticated lacing system and you block out shear as well, throwing the shock- absorption system even further into the dark.  During barefoot running, the ball of the foot strikes the ground first and immediately starts sending signals to the spinal cord and brain about the magnitude of impact and shear, getting most of its clues about this from the skin contact with the surface irregularities of the ground. Take away this contact by adding a cushioned substance and you immediately fool the system into underestimating the impact. Add a raised heel and the shod runner is forced to land on it. Strap the cushioning on tightly with the aid of a sophisticated lacing system and you block out shear as well, throwing the shock- absorption system even further into the dark.

37  The system responds by landing harder in an attempt to compress the cushion and 'feel' the ground. The weight is then transferred to the outside edge of the foot, completely by-passing the skin of the arch. The heel then touches down and the weight is transferred to the ball again with final push-off through the toes. While the weight is being transferred, the arch carries out its function as the suspension system of the foot and flattens under the active control of the intrinsic muscles. The ankle, knee and hip joints flex to absorb impact in response to information flowing in from the foot.  The system responds by landing harder in an attempt to compress the cushion and 'feel' the ground. The weight is then transferred to the outside edge of the foot, completely by-passing the skin of the arch. The heel then touches down and the weight is transferred to the ball again with final push-off through the toes. While the weight is being transferred, the arch carries out its function as the suspension system of the foot and flattens under the active control of the intrinsic muscles. The ankle, knee and hip joints flex to absorb impact in response to information flowing in from the foot.

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39  The cushioned midsole of the modern running shoe robs the system of important sensory information necessary for ankle, knee and hip response to impact. The arch support (or orthotic) in modern running shoes not only prevents the arch suspension system from absorbing energy by preventing flattening but eventually leads to intrinsic muscle atrophy and complete loss of active muscular control of the arch leaving only the inelastic plantar fascia as a checkrein to flattening. The barefoot runner's 'foot position awareness sense' which relies heavily on sensory input from the sole of the foot minimizes his risk of sustaining an ankle sprain on uneven ground.

40 Sir Roger Bannister when he ran when he ran the first sub-four-minute the first sub-four-minute mile in 1954 mile in 1954

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42 Nigg, 1997 New Paradigm (Concept) Human Body Vibrating System Impact Force Signal Response Muscle Adaptation “Muscle-Tuning” Goal Minimize Vibrations Effects Fatigue Comfort Work/Energy Subject-specific Muscle-specific

43 Modification of soft tissue vibrations in the leg by muscular activity JAMES M. WAKELING AND BENNO M. NIGG Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4 Received 8 May 2000; accepted in final form 14 August 2000   IMPACT FORCES DURING LOCOMOTION (e.g., at heel strike) should be expected to produce vibrations in the soft tissues of the body.   However, observations suggest that impact-related vibrations are minimal in the muscular soft tissues of the lower extremities during running.   Prolonged exposure to vibrations can have detrimental effects on the soft tissues, including reductions in motor unit firing rates and muscle contraction force (2), decreases in nerve conduction velocity, and reduced peripheral circulation and/or attenuated sensory perception (7, 11).   Thus it has been speculated that the body may use strategies to minimize soft tissue vibrations during locomotion (22).

44 Nigg BMNigg BM. Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, The University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Nigg BM The role of impact forces and foot pronation: a new paradigm. The role of impact forces and foot pronation: a new paradigm.  Muscle tuning might affect fatigue, comfort, work, and performance. Experimental evidence suggests that the concept of "aligning the skeleton" with shoes, inserts, and orthotics should be reconsidered. They produce only small, not systematic. and subject-specific changes of foot and leg movement. A new paradigm for movement control for the lower extremities proposes that forces acting on the foot during the stance phase act as an input signal producing a muscle reaction. The cost function used in this adaptation process is to maintain a preferred joint movement path for a given movement task. If an intervention counteracts the preferred movement path, muscle activity must be increased. An optimal shoe, insert, or orthotic reduces muscle activity. Thus, shoes, inserts, and orthotics affect general muscle activity and, therefore, fatigue, comfort, work, and performance.

45 Biomechanigg Research Inc. (BRI)  is a consulting company in the area of biomechanics of movement, physical activity and mobility. Its customers include many of the world leading companies in sporting goods. The expertise available through BRI includes knowledge in product development and testing for shoes, orthotics/inserts, sport surfaces and many other products relevant for physical activity and everyday life. The president and CEO of the company is Dr. Benno M. Nigg. He has a doctorate in natural sciences (Physics) from the ETH Zurich (Switzerland). From 1976 to 1981 he was the Director of the Biomechanics Laboratory of the ETH Zurich. In 1981, he was appointed Professor of Biomechanics in the Faculties of Kinesiology, Engineering and Medicine at the University of Calgary. He founded and directs the world famous Human Performance Laboratory (HPL), which currently has more than 100 co-workers. Recently, the research activities of the HPL have been assessed by independent external reviewers as “…. the best in the world in Clinical Biomechanical Research” and “… gold standard of scientific work in this field...”. Dr. Nigg’s research and consulting activities concentrate on load of the lower extremities during human locomotion. He has developed new paradigms for impact loading and for orthotic development, stressing the importance of muscles in control and protection. He had a major influence in the development of sport shoes and many functional features have been developed in his research centre. He is author of more than 275 scientific publications and the recipient of many awards (e.g. Olympic Order, Alberta Science and Technology Award) and elected member of three Scientific Academies. Dr. Nigg has an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Salzburg (Austria).

46 Sport shoes Adidas  Running Tennis Basketball Cross - country skiing Decathlon Hiking Mizuno v  Running Nike  Tennis Running Cross - training Biomechanigg Research Inc. (BRI)

47 Sport surfaces 3M  Artificial turf Balsam  Track and field  Track and field Johnston sports arch. RunningMartin Track and field Mondo Track and field indoor Omni sportArtificial turf Porplastic Track and field Biomechanigg Research Inc. (BRI)

48 Expensive Trainers or Cheap Running Trainers? Expensive trainers may not be better for runners than cheaper ones. Cheap and moderately priced running shoes provided as much support as those at the higher end of the market, researchers said. The research by University of Dundee was to asked participants to test three pairs of trainers from three manufacturers. The cheapest shoes (or running shoes) were priced at £40 to £45, with the moderate range costing from £60 to £65. The three most expensive trainers were priced between £70 and £75.

49 Plantar Pressure Measurement  Plantar pressure - the force produced by the impact of the sole hitting the ground running which can lead to injuries - was recorded electronically in eight areas of the sole when gymnasium users (or gyms users) were on a treadmill.  Overall, the study found no major differences among the shoes in terms of cushioning shoes impact and comfort, irrespective of Brand trainers, Brand name trainers, Puma trainers, Adidas trainers, Converse trainers, Cheap designer trainers or price.  And some cases the plantar pressure was lower in the cheap to moderately priced trainers.  The research found that neither pressure nor comfort are related to the cost of the trainers or cheap running shoes.  It appears to be the perception of the customer that if you pay more on expensive trainers you are going to get a better product. The study has showed that is not the case. Costly expensive trainers is the same as cheap running shoes.

50 adidas The Ground Control System™  All cushioning systems provide shock reduction, better pressure distribution, and improved impact protection. However, it is the first time that a cushioning system addresses specifically horizontal cushioning - meaning the forces that are caused by the movement from the front to the back and to the side during a foot strike. Research has shown that conventional cushioning systems cannot separate these two forces, which means that the critical horizontal loads to the body are not addressed by a conventional midsole system. 

51 adidas The Ground Control System™  The fractions of a second during a normal foot strike are simply too short for a conventional cushioning system to best react to all the forces. However what about horizontal forces causing stresses on the runner's body? Eighty percent of all runners land with a force in the heel area that equals a multiple of their body weight. The horizontal forces occurring in this area are equivalent to up to 0.5 times their body weight.  Independent research showed that the adidas Ground Control System™ reduces the rate of pronation by an average of 15% and the critical forces on the knees by a significant 30% on average. This is even more remarkable considering that the reduction of critical knee loads and pronation rate can prevent overuse injuries.

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53 The running shoes used by Britain's Sir Roger Bannister when he ran the first sub-four-minute mile in 1954 lie on the grass at Pembroke College, Oxford, during celebrations for the 50th anniversary of the event on Thursday. Sir Roger was a 25-year-old Oxford University medical student when he recorded a time of 3:59:40 seconds for the mile on May 6, — Reuters

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56  Leif Inge Tjelta, førstelektor ved idrettsstudiet ved Universitetet i Stavanger, har lang erfaring med trening av idrettsutøvere.  Han er landslagslagstrener i mellom- og langdistanseløp og har i flere år foretatt utholdenhetstester av blant annet fotballspillerne i Viking.  Tjelta sier at toppidretten baserer seg på en blanding av forskning og erfaring. Selv om han mener erfaringskunnskapen ofte ligger foran forskningen, synes han forskningen til Hausken og Moxnes er særdeles spennende.  – Det er ikke så vanskelig å estimere hvor god en utøver i for eksempel langdistanseløp er. Foretar man en såkalt melkesyreprofiltest, kan man nesten si hvor lang tid en løper vil bruke på et langdistanseløp.  – En slik test fanger opp utøverens maksimale oksygenopptak, teknikk og hvor nært sitt maksimale oksygenopptak utøveren er i stand til å bevege seg over lengre tid.  – Formtopping er derimot vanskeligere. Klarer de å lage noen matematiske formler for dette, er det veldig interessant, sier Tjelta.  Referanse:  Moxnes og Hausken: The dynamics of athletic performance, fitness and fatigue, i tidsskriftet Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems. The dynamics of athletic performance, fitness and fatigueThe dynamics of athletic performance, fitness and fatigue

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58  Lyd gjennom luft  Lyd er hurtig varierende lufttrykk. Den forplanter seg ved at trykkbølger sprer seg utover som ringer i vann. Den har en sfærisk forplantningsretning. Lydintensiteten avtar derfor med kvadratet på avstanden.

59  Visste du at det sannsynligvis er flere stjerner i universet enn antall sandkorn på alle verdens strender og i alle verdens ørkener tilsammen? Nærmere bestemt ca. 7 x 10^22, eller millioner, millioner, millioner.  ars.survey/ ..at universet har tre atomer per kubikkmeter? dvs ca 1 sandkorn per kubikkmeter.


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