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Acknowledgement Any survey work is impossible with out any support of expert and professional and that study is not an exception. Therefore First of all.

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Presentasjon om: "Acknowledgement Any survey work is impossible with out any support of expert and professional and that study is not an exception. Therefore First of all."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

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2 Acknowledgement Any survey work is impossible with out any support of expert and professional and that study is not an exception. Therefore First of all I would like to express my deep sense indebted to Dr. Meenakshi Srivastava. Head of the department of zoology university of Lucknow. This able guidance encouragement and timely suggestion provided me incentive to work on the problem assigned to me. Thanks are more than due to Dr.Nirupma Agarwal professor of zoology department for providing the necessary facilities in the department. I am highly thankful to Dr.A.M.Sexena professor of zoology department. Finally, I am especially indebted to Dr. Amita Kanuajia lecturer of zoology department who have not only blessed me but also remained a tower of strength for inspiration and encouragement. Reena Devi M.sc.final(zoology) University of Lucknow

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4  Protozoa classification (Levine et al (1980) ).  Life cycle of different protozoan parasites.

5 Gereral characters- 1. These are microscopic, animalcule but few are visible to the unaided eyes. 2. Spherical, amoeboid,ovoid,spindle, cup shaped. 3. Body is a cellular. 4. Free living. 5. Protoplasm, differentiated into ectoplasm, endoplasm. saprophytic. 6. Nutrition may be holozoic (animal like), halophytic(plant like), saprophytic. 7. Locomotion by pseudopodia(rhiopoda),flagella(mastigophora), cilia(ciliata). cilia(ciliata). 8. protozoans two type of nuclei(macronucleus)and nucleus(dimorphic).

6 SARCOMASTIGOPHORA LABYRINTHOMORPHA APICOMPLEXA MICROSPORA ASCETOSPORA MYXOZOA CILIOPHORA * SARCOMASTIGOPHORA LABYRINTHOMORPHA APICOMPLEXA MICROSPORA ASCETOSPORA MYXOZOA CILIOPHORA *

7 SUBPHYLUM MASTIGOPHORA OPALINATA SARCODINA

8 C L PHYTOMASTIGOPHORA A O- EUGLENIDA Ex- Euglena S o- DINOFLAGELLIDA Ex- Noctiluca S ZOOMASTIGOPHORA Leishmania o -KINETOPLASTIDA Ex-Trypanosoma, Leishmania o- DIPLOMONADIDA Ex-Giardia o- TRICHOMONADIDA Ex- Trichomonas

9 class- OPALINATEA Order- OPALINIDA e.g OPLINA class- OPALINATEA Order- OPALINIDA e.g OPLINA

10 SUPERCLASS –Rhizopoda C Lobosea L s u A b Gymnamoebia o- Amoebeda Ex-Amoeba S c l Arcellinida Ex-Arcella S a s Granuloreticulasea Granuloreticulasea o- Foramanifrida Polystomella(Elphidium) o- Foramanifrida Ex- Polystomella (Elphidium)

11 CLASS SPOROZOEA Gregarina s. s. O- Gregarinida Ex-Monocystis, Gregarina C. C. Coccidia o- Eococcidida Ex- Plasmodium, Eimeria

12 CLASS KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA S.C.- S.C.-VESTIBULIFEREA o- TRICHOSTOMATIDA Ex-Balantidium S.C S.C.-SUCTORIA o- SUCTORIDA Ex- Ephelota POLYMENOPHORA S.C S.C - SPIROTRICHIA o- HETEROTRICHIDA Ex- Stentor, Nyctotherus OLIGOMENOPHORA S.C S.C.-HYMENOSTOMATIA O- O-HYMENOSTOMATIDIA EX- Paramecium S.C S.C PERITRICHIA o- PERITRICHIDA Ex- Vorticella

13 SARCOMASTIGOPHORA  Simple nucleus.  Locomotion through Flagella, Pseudopodia.  Reproduction through Syngamy

14 S.P-MASTIGOPHORA  Commonly called flagellate.  Locomotion through flagellum.  Body covered with pellicle.  Nutrition may be Holophytic, Saprozoic, Holozoic.

15 CLASS. PHYTOMASTIPHORA  Presence of Chromatophore.  Nutrition may be Holophytic or Mixiotrophic.  Paramylon is reserve food.  Reproduction take place by longitudinal binary fission.

16 ORDER EUGLENIDA  Body covered with Pellicle.  One or two flagella.  Nutrition holophytic or saprozoic.  Reproduction by longitudinal binary fission. e.g. Euglena.

17 CLASS ZOOMASTIGOPHORA  Absence of Chromatophores.  Two or more flagella.  Holozoic or saprozoic nutrition.  Reproduction through binary fission.

18 ORDER- KINETOPLASTIDA  Mostly parasitic.  Nutrition holozoic or saprozoic.  Reprodution by binary fissioin.  Mostly pathogenic (disease causing in man and domestic animal). e.g. Trypanosoma.

19 SUBPHYLUM-OPALINATA  Body covered with cilia.  Monomorphic nuclei are present.  Reproduction by symmetogenic.  Endoparasite in large intestine of frog. e.g. Opalina.

20 SUB-PHYLUM SARCODINA  Locomotion and feeding by pseudopodia.  Body is amoeboid.  Single nucleus.  Nutrition is holozoic, Saprozoic.  Reproduction by binary fission.

21 OREDER-AMOEBIDA  Body is amoeboid.  Naked without Skelton.  Test or shell absent. e.g. Amoeba.

22 ORDER-ARCELLINIDA  Body enclosed in one chambered shell.  Lobose pseudopodia.  Fresh water forms. e.g. Arcella.

23 PHYLUM-APICOMPLEXA  Apical complex.  Consisting of polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid.  Cilia absent.  Reproduction by syngamy.

24 ORDER-GREGARINIDA  Mature trophozoites large and extra cellular.  Reproduction by sexual with sporogony.  Spore contains eight sporozoites. e.g. Monocystis.

25 ORDER-EOCOCCIDIDA  Trophozoite is intracellular.  Parasite of vertebrates, insect, worms. e.g. Plasmodium, Eimeria.

26 ORDER-MICROSPORIDA  Spores are unicellular.  Intra cellular in arthropods and vertebrates. e.g. Nosema bombycis, caused Pebrine disease in silkworm larvae.

27 PHYLUM-CILIOPHORA  Simple and compound cilia.  Two types of nuclei.  Reproduction by conjugation,Autogamy, Cytogamy. e.g. Paramecium, Balantidium

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42 CLASSIFICATION (1965) BY -JOHN AND BOVEE Phylum Protozoa Mastigophora Sacrodina Ciliata Opalinate eg-opalina Sporozoa

43 PHYTOMASTIGOPHOREAZOOMASTIGOPHOREA PHYTOMASTIGOPHOREA ZOOMASTIGOPHOREA 1-CHRYSOMONADIDA 1-CHAONOFLAGELLIDA Eg-Chrysamaeda eg- Proterospongia 2-CRYPTOMONADIDA 2-RHIZOMASTIGIDA Eg-Cryptomonas eg-Mastigamoeba 3-DINOFLAGELLIDA 3-KINETOPLASTIDA Eg-Ceratium,Noctiluca eg-Leishmania 4-EUGLENIDA 4-DIPLOMONADIDA Eg- Euglena eg- Giardia 5- VOLVOCIDA 5-TRICHOMONADIDA Eg-Volvox Pandorina 6- HYPERMASTIGIDA 6- CHLOROMONADIDA eg- Trichonympha Eg-Vacuolaria

44 classes HYDRAULEA AUTOTRACTEA 1-AMOEBIDA 1-PROTEOMYXIDA Eg- Amoeba, eg-Pseudospora Entamoeba 2-HELIOZODA 2-ARCELLINIDA eg-Actinophrys Eg-Arcella,difflugia 3-RADIOLARIDA 3-MYCETOZOIDA eg-Thalassicola Eg-Badhamia 4-FORAMANIFERIDA eg-Elphidium

45 TELOSPOREA CNIDOSPOREA ACNIDOSPOREA 1-MYXOSPORIDA 1-TOXOPLASMIDA 1-GREGARINIDIA eg-Myxobolus eg-Toxoplsma Eg-Monocystis Myxidium GREGARINA 2- COCCIDIA 2-MICROSPORIDA 2-HAPLOSPORIDA Eg-Eimeria eg-Nosema eg-Haplasporidium Isopora Ictrhyosporidium 3-HAEMOSPORIDIA Eg-Plasmodium

46 HOLOTRICHEA PERITRICHEA SUCTOREA SPIROTRICHEA 1-GYMNOSTOMATIDA 1-PERITRICHIDA 1-SUCTORIDA 1-HETEROTRICHIDA EgProrodon eg-Vorticella eg-Ephelota eg Nyctotherus 2-TRICHOSTOMATIDA Podophrya 2-OLIGOTRICHIDA Eg-Balantidium eg-Strombidium 3-CHONOTRICHIDA 3-HYPOTRICHIDA Eg-Spirochona eg-Stylonychia 4-ASTOMATIDA Eg-Anoplophyra 5-HYMENSTOMATIDA Eg-Paramoecium

47 1- SARCOMASTIGOPHORA 2- APICOMPLEXA 3- MICROSPHORA NOT 4- ASCETOSPORA CONSIDERED 5- MYXOZOA 6- CILIOPHORA ( e.g-Balantidium, Nyctotherus)

48 MASTIGOPHORA OPALINATE SARCODINA CLASS (AMOEBAE) ZOOMASTIGOPHORA ORDER KINETOPLASTIDA RETORTAMONADIDA DIPLOMONADIDA TRICHOMONADIDA eg- Chilomastix, eg- Giardia eg-Trichomonas, S.O S.O Retortamonas Dientamoeba. TRYPANOSOMATINA Eg.– Trypanosoma, Leishmania RHIZOPODA Eg,-Entamoeba, Naegleria RHIZOPODA Eg,-Entamoeba, Naegleria

49 class Sporozoea eg-Monocystis eg -Isopora, eg -Babesia, Toxoplasma, Theileria Plasmodium GREGARINIA COCCIDIA PIROPLASMIA

50  Levine et al (1980).  J.D.Smith.  K.K.Tripathi.

51 THANK YOU


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