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FYS 4250 Lecture 9. Case 9 - A 69 year old man is undergoing surgery because of a liver tumor. The surgery is uneventful in all ways, except for a minor.

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Presentasjon om: "FYS 4250 Lecture 9. Case 9 - A 69 year old man is undergoing surgery because of a liver tumor. The surgery is uneventful in all ways, except for a minor."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 FYS 4250 Lecture 9

2 Case 9 - A 69 year old man is undergoing surgery because of a liver tumor. The surgery is uneventful in all ways, except for a minor rhythm disturbance after approximately 35 minutes of anesthesia.

3 Case 9 - The patient’s weight is 72 kg when hospitalized, blood pressure is 135/80 mmHg, the heart rate is 65 bpm, no drug abuse, and the HIV assay is negative. Anesthesia introduction is prolonged due to a defect vaporizer, but no problem is observed in the start of the procedure. After approximately 40 minutes, muscle shivering is observed, and the blood pressure rises. The muscle relaxant dosage is increased and the shivering dissipates, the blood pressure is restored at the original level. After the surgery is accomplished, they start cessation of medication in order to wake up the patient slowly. However, after several hours at the ICU, there are no signs of awakening. What has happened?

4 Anesthesia Anesthesia is defined as abolition of sensation Analgesia is defined as abolition of paint The “triad” of anesthesia is: –Unconsciousness of the patient –Analgesia of the patient –Muscle relaxation

5 Stages of Anesthesia

6 Bispectral index score (BIS)

7 Bispectral index score (BIS) Based on EEG-measurements. A sensor placed on the forehead registers raw EEG- signals, transmits to a monitor which filters and digitalizes the EEG signal. Advanced pattern recognition calculate a value (BIS- score) from 0 (Isoelectric EEG) to 100 (completely awake)

8 BIS Sources of error Hypothermia: Decrease in BIS value Sleep: Decrease in BIS value Cerebral ischemia: Decrease in BIS value Neurological states: Decrease in BIS values Encephalopathic states: Decrease in BIS values Interference from medical devices: Increase in BIS values Low PaCO 2 : Decrease in BIS values And what about the electrodes??

9 The Anesthesia Workstation

10 What are the main concerns? - Wrong gas concentrations - High pressure - Rebreathing - Leakages

11 The vaporizer A vaporizer will change the liquid anesthetic agent into a vapor and insert a certain amount of this vapor into the fresh gas flow

12 Scavenging Systems Will protect the breathing circuit from excessive pressures

13 To understand the Anesthesia workstation, let’s start with the beginning and look at some patient accidents and the safety features that came out of those experiences

14 Wrong gas concentrations Accident: patient did not get adequate oxygen levels

15 Wrong gas concentrations Accident: Leakage from O 2 to N 2 O O 2 N O 2 O room slave generator

16 O 2 N O 2 O 2 2 Berge Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig. 2.F. 3-room slave regulator Wrong gas concentrations Accident: No O2 flow

17 Based on pressure only, not safe enough

18 Feil gass konsentrasjon

19 Fig. 2.X.1 Dameca Minioxyguard O 2 N O 2 O 2 O 2 2 Slave control valve DIAPHRAGM Wrong gas concentration

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22 Pressure sensor shut-off valve When the oxygen supply pressure is above a safety level, the valve is open

23 Fig 2B Simple valve Wrong gas concentrations Accident: Reflux of gas

24 Today’s anaesthesia workstations

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26 Fig 2B Simple valve

27 Wrong gas concentrations Accident: Two vapourizers simultanously

28 Fresh gas Calc Valve 1 Valve 2 Sidestream Berner Evac Too high pressure Accident: valve is locked

29 Too high pressure Accident: wrong connection, no outlet for gas = pneumathorax

30 Expiratory airway pressure Control and monitor Pressure monitor Anesthetic gas scavenging system Adjustable pressure limiting valve provide control of the pressure in the breathing circle

31 The 7-stage test of the Anesthesia workstation How to make sure your device is safe and ready to use

32 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 ? © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

33 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

34 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 ? ? ? © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

35 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 ”PIP” © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

36 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 ? © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

37 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O 2 cm H 2 O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 ? ? ? © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

38 HØYTRYKKHØYTRYKK HØYTRYKKSMANOMETERE GASSFLASKER MED REDUKSJONS- VENTILER N 2 O LUFT O DOSERINGSBLOKK MANOMETER FOR TETTHETSKONTROLL SUGEKATETER EVAC FRA PASIENTSYSTEM GASS- RESERVOAR BEHOLDER FOR SEKRET BAKTERIEFILTER SEKRETSUG FUKTIGHETS- SPERRE (SHUT OFF) EJEKTORSUG FOR GASSER (OVERSKUDDSGASS PASIENTSYSTEM) F O R D A M P E R MELLOMTRYKKS- MANOMETERE TILBAKESLAGS- VENTILER O 2 N O 2 HURTIGKOBLINGER O -ALARM FLØYTE 2 SLAVE- VENTIL GASSVENDER I STILLING ”LUFT” OKSYGEN- FLUSH LUKKET FRISKGASS UTTAK TIL PASIENT- SYSTEM LAVTRYKKLAVTRYKK MELLOMTRYKKMELLOMTRYKK RESERVOAR O -ALARM 2 LYDFELLE O 2 N O LUFT VEGG-UTTAK 2 D O S E R I N G S V E N T I L E R Berge, Grimnes: Gassteknisk medisinsk utstyr Del 2 Fig 2A, side 11 N O 2 200ml 22 mmHg © 1992 TH/JAB Rikshospitalet Med.Tekn.Avd Redigert 2006 av TM.

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40 Case 9 - Weaning of the ventilator is also a problem, and a CT- caput is finally scheduled. The CT-images show several air emboli in the left side of the brain. There were also blood in the endotracheal tube used during anesthesia What has happened?

41 Answer: Bronchial venous fistula Patient is ventilated with relatively high pressure, the fistula breaks and air is pushed into the venous system. Too much air will pass through the lungs and into the heart/brain depending on the position of the patient. Both cases may be fatal. In this case, the patient died after short time


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