Ikke-smittsomme sykdommer er definert som: hjerte- og karsykdommer kreft kroniske lungesykdommer diabetes Hoved - risikofaktorene for disse sykdommene: bruk av tobakk usunt kosthold for lite fysisk aktivitet skadelig bruk av alkohol
Oil spikes Retrenching from globalization Asset price collapse Food price volatility Financial crisis Noncommunicable diseases Infectious diseases "A problem neither the developed world nor the developing world can afford" " (WEF Global Risk 2010 Report) "A problem neither the developed world nor the developing world can afford" " (WEF Global Risk 2010 Report) NCDs are the third largest global risk
Ett av tre dødsfall i Norge skjer før 75-års alder Langt over halvparten av for tidlige dødsfall skyldes de fire gruppene av ikke-smittsomme sykdommer Totalt (for alle aldersgrupper under ett) er hjerte- og karsykdommer viktigste dødsårsak Før 75 års alder er kreft viktigste dødsårsak ◦ Kvinner: 1) Lunge, 2) Bryst, 3) Tykk- og endetarm ◦ Menn: 1) Lunge, 2) Tykk- og endetarm, 3) Prostata
Nutrition transition – globalization uncontrolled Diabetes and obesity worldwide: epidemics in full flight "Obesity: now deadlier than smoking." The Health Risks of Sugar - Rebound hypoglycaemia
Tooth decay Obesity Diabetes Coca-Cola the No 1 item sold in NZ super markets
Free sugars intakes should be <10% of energy intake <5% = additional benefits Free sugars: all sugars added to food by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, & sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices & fruit concentrates.
WSRO: The Draft Guideline fails to reflect the weakness of the scientific evidence and makes recommendations that are not supported by the totality of the available scientific evidence. Sugar Assoc (USA): Unfortunately, we remain concerned that the draft guidelines’ suggested limits rely heavily on insufficient scientific evidence
“… renal, oral and eye diseases pose a major health burden for many countries and that these diseases share common risk factors and can benefit from common responses to non- communicable diseases”
Implication is that promotion of oral health should be integrated into the main strategies to prevent the major NCDs such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. It constitutes an obligation for governments, to introduce policies to reduce NCDs, including oral health.
Call for action Content of the UN High-level meeting on NCD A practical tool Enhance synergies Inform and advise Influence policy ◦ Develop strategies to reduce intake of sugar
Policy Statements: Non-communicable diseases Oral health and the Social determinants of health Salivary Diagnostics Oral Infection as a Risk factor for systemic diseases The Istanbul Declaration
Controlling a small number of risk factors The key concept underlying the integrated common risk approach is that promoting general health by controlling a small number of risk factors, may have a major impact on a large number of diseases at a lower cost than disease specific approaches.
These are: 1.A food and health policy to reduce sugars consumption. 2.A community approach to improve body hygiene and oral hygiene. 3.Smoking cessation policy. 4.Policy on alcohol 5.Policy on reducing accidents. In addition to those strategies, the specific oral strategies are: 6.Policies on fluoride toothpaste use. 7.Ensuring the availability of appropriate, acceptable, evidence- based dental prevention and dental care.
Bidra til en samfunnsutvikling som fremmer folkehelse og utjevner sosiale helseforskjeller Sikre at folkehelse prioriteres Langsiktig kunnskapsbasert og systematisk arbeid Bedre samordning Samhandlingsreformen
| 21 De sosiale ulikhetenes mønster Tiltak bør rettes mot hele befolkningen (ikke bare høyrisiko-grupper) Tiltak bør rettes i hele årsakskjeden (ikke bare individuell atferd) Sosial ulikhet i helse og oral helse. Gradient.
Obesity Cancers Heart disease Respiratory disease Dental caries Periodontal diseases Trauma Diet Stress Control Hygiene Risk FactorsDiseases Risk Factors Tobacco Alcohol Exercise Injuries Common Risk Factor Approach: Conditions Model School Policy Workplace Housing Political environment Physical environment Social environment
Refocusing Upstream Not Downstream Three levels of public health interventions to improve health of the population: The downstream level; consumes most resources, but covers a very small segment of the general population Mid-stream prevention; involves primary and secondary prevention to encourage people not to carry out health compromising behaviours Upstream; healthy public policy interventions governmental, institutional, and organizational actions
The relationship of diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease seems to be bidirectional Diabetes is an important risk factor for periodontitis, leading to increased prevalence, severity, and progression of the disease i.e. increased attachment loss even early in life Periodontal infections can lead to increased levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), increased mortality from cardiovascular outcomes, and more renal and vascular complications in patients with diabetes. Assessment and Management of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in the Dental Office. Evanthia Lalla, DDS, MSa,*, Ira B. Lamster, DDS, MMScb Dental Clinics of North America. 56,24, 2012
Know the major type 2 diabetes risk factors and seek to identify dental patients at risk who may remain unidentified/undiagnosed Evaluate signs and symptoms indicative of poor metabolic control in patients with known diabetes Inform identified patients about their condition and advise on lifestyle modifications Refer patients, if necessary, to a physician for proper evaluation and treatment Oral health professionals must discuss with their patients the link between oral and general health, how diabetes and periodontitis interrelate
Whole-mouth periodontal evaluation consisting of probing depth and attachment loss measurements Assessment of the level of plaque and gingival inflammation Radiographic evaluation of bone levels, as needed Identification of signs and symptoms of opportunistic infections (eg, oral candidiasis) Clinical protocols and guidelines should be in place in every dental practice setting for determining Due to possible hypoglycemic episodes, dental professionals must consider timing and duration of appointments Treatment of periodontal disease can reduce blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes –decrease of HbA1c Assessment and Management of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in the Dental Office. Evanthia Lalla, DDS, MSa,*, Ira B. Lamster, DDS, MMScb Dental Clinics of North America. 56,24, 2012
Infection and inflammation play a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis Individuals with severe chronic periodontitis have a significantly increased risk of developing CVD including Atherosclerosis, Myocardial infarction, Stroke Severe periodontitis has been associated with high BP in elderly Studies have shown a dose-dependent relationship between number of teeth and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) mortality, indicating a link between oral health and CVD
Modiﬁable lifestyle associated risk factors for periodontitis and CVD should be addressed in the dental ofﬁce and in the context of comprehensive periodontal therapy, i.e. smoking cessation programs and advice on lifestyle modiﬁcations (diet and exercise) Determine and prevent : Patients at risk for infective endocarditis may require antibiotics prior to dental procedures Educate: Discuss with patients risk factors such as hypertension and high blood pressure Screening tools
Oral cancer is globally the eight most common malignancy Mostly in the tongue, floor of the mouth, lips and cheeks. Risk factors for oral cancer include use tobacco and alcohol Poor prognosis – early detection saves lives Treatment with radiation and chemotherapy effect oral microflora caused by radiation-induced xerostomia. Increased caries risk, periodontal disease, other infections Dental treatment include oral evaluation and treatment, encourage a non-cariogenic diet and consult oncology team
VerySomewhat Not sureSomewhat Very unwilling willingwillingunwilling N (%) Saliva 1,245 (64.3) 454 (23.4) 104 (5.4) 60 (3.1) 74 (3.8) Finger stick blood 552 (28.5) 530 (27.4) 320 (16.5) 316 (16.3) 218 (11.3) BP 1,359 (70.1) 401 (20.7) 65 (3.4) 50 (2.6) 65 (3.4) 65 (3.4) Ht/wt 640 (33.1) 471 (24.3) 297 (15.3) 300 (15.5) 228 (11.8) Greenberg BL, et al JADA 2010; 141(1): 52-62
Integration and collaboration Oral health care professionals Identification Referrals Diagnosis Treatment Monitoring After Michael Glick Physicians’ scope of practice
Ikke-smittsomme sykdommer er en av vår tids største utfordringer, både i Norge og verden. Orale sykdommer og andre ikke-smittsomme sykdommer har samme risikofaktorer – Common Risk Factor Approach. Tannhelsepersonale har en mulighet og en utfordring til å diagnostisere, forebygge og kontrollere ikke-smittsomme sykdommer. På grunn av stor personell-tetthet, høy frekvens av tannlegebesøk, god grunn og etterutdanning og har tannhelsepersonell i Norge en god forutsetning og mulighet for å begrense NCDs. Dette vil komme og vi er en ubenyttet ressurs i dette arbeidet. Viktig at tannhelsetjenesten samarbeider tett med generell helsetjeneste, også ved Samhandlingsreformen.