Presentasjon om: "Kasuistikk - Luftveisinfeksjoner Lars Heggelund, Seksjon for infeksjonssykdommer, Medisinsk avdeling, Drammen sykehus, Vestre Viken HF Spørsmål: Har."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:
1Kasuistikk - Luftveisinfeksjoner Lars Heggelund, Seksjon for infeksjonssykdommer, Medisinsk avdeling, Drammen sykehus, Vestre Viken HFSpørsmål:Har han en infeksiøs bronkitt?KOLS?Reaktiv postinfeksiøs bronkitt?Anamnese:TobakkArbeidskarriere?TBC eksponering?Aspirasjonsproblematikk?
2Diagnostiske betraktninger Lav CRP, normalt rtg thorax“Ble bra av Ery-Max”Reell endobronkial infeksjonDet naturlige forløp – tidsfaktorenEvt immunmodulerende effekt
3Diagnostiske betraktninger Supplerende mikrobiologisk diagnostikk:Produktiv hoste – dyrkning + utvidet viral PCR us av “morgengruff”Serologi kan vurderesAnnen diagnostikk:Klinisk us. - obstruktiv?Nytt rtg thorax.Vurder CT thorax, spesielt ved røykeanamneseSpirometri uten og med bronkodilatator
4Akutt bronkitt - etiologi Oftest viralt betingetInfluensa, RSAv og til:Mycoplasma, Chlamydophila, PertussisPneumokokker, Haemophilus, MoraxellaHar antibiotika effekt?Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for antibiotikabruk i primærhelsetjenesten:”Det er ikke dokumentert klinisk relevant effekt av antibiotika ved akutt bronkitt. Til tross for dette skrives det i Norge ut antibiotika til mer enn halvparten av de som får denne diagnosen.”
5Akutt bronkitt – Cochrane Review Mars 2014:”Antibiotic treatment for people with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis”17 randomiserte kliniske studier med ca 4000 deltakere.Inkluderer en studie med ca 1000 deltakere fra 12 land: svært liten men statistisk signifikant gunstig effekt: ½ dag kortere symptomer. ”The available evidence suggests that there is no benefit in using antibiotics for acute bronchitis in otherwise healthy individuals though more research is needed on the effect in frail, elderly people with multimorbidities who may not have been included in the existing trials”
6Jan Cato Holter, PhD. Student, 23 May 2014 Community-acquired pneumonia in Norway: etiology and value of extensive microbial diagnostic testing Pneumoniprosjektet i Buskerud Characterize the etiology of CAP in Norway Investigate potential benefit of PCRJan Cato Holter, PhD. Student, 23 May 2014
8Results Etiology- filling the gap 267Full cohortStreptococcus pneumoniaeBacteremia: 9%- S. pneumoniae 84%30%Bordetella pertussis6%Haemophilus influenzae5%63%Bacteria: 47%Copathogen: 26%Mycoplasma pneumoniae4%Chlamydophila pneumoniae3%LegionellaViruses: 34%3%Mycoplsma epidemier: 2006 og 2011Gram-negative enteric bacteria2%Moraxella catarrhalis2%Miscellaneous1%Influenza virus: 15%Rhinovirus: 12%Haemophilus parainfluenza1%Viruses34%Unknown37%
9Results Seasonality- combined infection 64Complete samplesJanuaryandFebruary(B) Monthly distribution of patients with pure bacterial, pure viral or combined bacterial and viral CAP during a 3-year period in a subset of 64 patients with complete samples collected.Coinfections= 34%, selekterer combined bacterial and viral: 25%Sesonganalyse:i. The proportion of cases with combined infection peaked in January and February to levels of 60% (not shown) andii. was significantly different between the winter and spring than summer and fall (39.4% vs 9.7%, P = .01).iii. Combined bacterial and viral infection occurred more frequently than pure bacterial or pure viral infection during winter and spring (Figure 5B)
10Results Microbial findings 64Complete samplesAntibiotic naïve (n = 43): 79%Total yield: 73% ≥ Copathogen: 47%Bacterial yield: 58%≥ Copathogen: 57%Virus 43%Viral yield: 41%≥ Copathogen: 65%Bacteria: 62%S. pneumonae: 35%S. pneumoniae: 31%≥ Copathogen: 60%Virus 45%Etiology was achieved for 47 (73%) of 64 patients with complete sample collection (Figure 3).-Copathogens were detected for 22 (47%) patients.2. A bacterial diagnosis was achieved for 37 (58%) of the 64 patients- Copathogens were detected for 21 of 37 (57%), and this was associated with a virus for 16 og 37 (43%)3. 20 (31%) patients had detection of S. pneumoniae of whom 12 (60%) had ≥1 copathogen detected; of these 20 S. pneumoniae episodes had 9 (45%) ≥1 respiratory virus detected (i.e., 9 [75%] of the 12 coinfected S. pneumoniae episodes was attributed to ≥1 virus).4. A total of 26 (41%) patients had a viral agent detected. 17 (65%) of these 26 patiens had at least 1 copathogen detected of which 62% (16 of 26 patients) were associtated with bacteria and 9 (35%) had identification of S. pneumoniae.
11Results Methods64Complete samples7%5%19%15%The total diagnostic yield improved by 12% (47 vs 42 cases, P = .44) when PCR was added conventional methods; 9% (37 vs 34) for cases with bacterial etiology and 86% (26 vs 14, P = .035) for cases with viral etiology (Figure 4). Cases with detection of ≥1 copathogen increased by 83% (22 vs 12).
12Conclusion13/4 of patients may receive a microbiological diagnose.2PCR-based techniques were particularly useful in diagnosing viral infections as well as coinfection (1/3 of patients).1. ¾ of patients may receive a microbiological diagnose. The most common single pathogens were S. pneumoniae followed by influenza virus and rhinovirus.2. PCR-based techniques were particularly useful in diagnosing viral infections as well as coinfection, which occurred in approximately 1/3 of the patients and with majority of patients being viral agents.3. Combined bacterial and viral infection was more common during winter and spring than either infection alone.3Combined bacterial and viral infection was more common during winter and spring than either infection alone.
13Research group and collaborators Jan C. Holter, MDFredrik Müller, MD, PhDOla Bjørang, MScHelvi H. Samdal, MDJon B. Marthinsen, MDPål Jenum, MD, PhDThor Ueland, PhDStig S. Frøland, MD, PhDPål Aukrust, MD, PhDEinar Husebye, MD, PhDLars Heggelund, MD, PhD.