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Oppsummering Pensum: Olsen, kap. 35 - 36. Formalisering Krav for å anvende datamaskinen Jo høyere formaliseringsnivå jo høyere nivås operasjoner Aktuelt.

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Presentasjon om: "Oppsummering Pensum: Olsen, kap. 35 - 36. Formalisering Krav for å anvende datamaskinen Jo høyere formaliseringsnivå jo høyere nivås operasjoner Aktuelt."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Oppsummering Pensum: Olsen, kap

2 Formalisering Krav for å anvende datamaskinen Jo høyere formaliseringsnivå jo høyere nivås operasjoner Aktuelt lenge før datamaskinen: Bokholderi Lagerstyring Kirkebøker Industriprosesser Det som er formalisert kan ofte automatiseres: Før datamaskinen – stort sett bare industrielle prosesser Etter datamaskinen: Også administrative prosesser Formalisering ofte vanskelig, f.eks. for naturlig språk Men belønningen er stor!

3 Internett og Web HTML tilbyr høy grad av fleksibilitet, men har et lavt formaliseringsnivå HTML kan også brukes som brukergrensesnitt mot formaliserte databaser (bank, billetter m.m.) XML gjør det mulig å heve formaliseringsnivået og realisere B2B applikasjoner

4 Begrensninger Tekniske, kulturelle og sosiale begrensninger kan hindre bremse innføring av ny teknologi Om teknologien er levedyktig vil den likevel få gjennomslag Enkelte viktige gjennombrudd: VLSI, ADSL, Internett og Web standarder Barnesykdommer som utstyrsfeil, programfeil, virus, spam…

5 Jobbmarkedet – lukkede jobber Airplane pilot Works in a formalized environment. Technically possible, but for psychological reasons, not probable. Air traffic controller Formalized environment.Yes, there may still be humans to handle exceptions and to supervise the systems, but most routine cases will be handled by a computer system. Metro driverFormalized tasks in a formalized environment. Yes, already in progress. Toll plaza employees, ticket collectors Payment of toll, selling, and retrieving tickets. Yes, with new technology (radio transponders, etc.) and payment systems (over Internet, credit card) these tasks can be performed automatically. Warehouse worker Mostly formalized tasks.Picking and storing items can be performed automatically by robots if the environment is formalized. Industrial workerMostly formalized tasks.Many jobs have been removed over the last forty years due to computer-controlled machinery.

6 Mellomledd som kan forsvinne JobJob descriptionIn danger of disappearing? Bank employeesMost tasks are formalized.Yes, have already had huge impact. More jobs will disappear as more customers get Internet access and Internet literacy. Music store employee Open (advice, help, personal service) and closed (retrieving, payment) parts. Probable, record stores lose market shares as customers download music directly from the net. Photo laboratory employee Develop and print pictures.Yes, with digital cameras the customers can do the job: select, cut, annotate, and print if necessary. Booking services Many tasks, such as booking a ticket in a movie theater, are formalized. Yes, the customer can perform most of these tasks on the Web. Gas station attendant Formalized.With charge cards and computer-controlled pumps the customer can do the whole job. Information services Large parts may be formalized. Yes, as customers access the information systems directly.

7 Outsourcing til andre land JobJob descriptionIn danger of disappearing? Industrial workerMostly formalized tasks.The Internet and the Web makes it easier to outsource many of the remaining industrial jobs to low-wage areas, keeping design and marketing where it is. Repairing industrial products Mostly open tasks (exceptions). Yes, many industrial products are so cheap to manufacture that repairs are no longer cost effective. That is the open job of repairing is replaced by the closed job of producing a new item. Computer programmer Mostly open tasks, formalizing the real world as a computer program. Parts of this symbolic activity can be outsourced to countries with lower wages. EngineeringMostly open tasks.Yes, with modern communication networks parts of engineering work can be outsourced to a country with lower wages. Call centerA personal level of service often wanted. Yes, with global communication networks the call can be taken anywhere.

8 Åpne jobber JobOpen/closedComputer takeover? Bus driverWorks in an unformalized environment (roads and traffic). By formalizing the environment (e.g., building a metro line). Lawyers, judgesMany open parts, work in the interface between laws and the real world. No, even if parts of their job (information gathering) are made more efficient with the computer. Health care workers Works with people, very few formalized parts. Only in a few areas, such as cardiac monitoring. Executive positions Few closed parts. Take decisions based on overall strategies, often with incomplete data. Only indirectly (e.g., if the technologies remove the foundation for the company). TeachersMost tasks are open, individual handling of students important. Parts of training-oriented programs may be offered by the computer. WaiterBoth open (recommendation, serving) and closed (taking an order, billing) tasks. Not likely, customers are most often willing to pay for a high level of (human) service. Sales personnelClosed (taking an order, billing) and open tasks (e.g., advising/persuading the customer). In cases where the personal contact is limited (over phone, ) a computer may do the job.

9 Teknologiske framskritt Vi ser på mulighetene i nye teknologier Men når prototypene møter den virkelige verden ser vi begrensningene Det første mennesket gikk på månen i 1969 – hva var forventningene den gang? Alt er ikke mulig ”Detaljer” kan være viktige: Vi kan vise en bok på LCD-skjermen, men elektroniske bøker blir først anvendelige når vi får bedre skjermkvalitet Ny teknologi må konkurrere med den eksisterende

10 Framskritt for åpne applikasjoner Eksempler: kan vi lage en maskin som rengjør hjemmet automatisk? hva skal til? kan vi utvikle en robot som styrer en bil? hva skal til? Mange applikasjoner er åpne

11 Framskritt for lukkede applikasjoner En ny prosessor, en ny type memory chip, en ny algoritme, en ny mobiltelefon, en ny Web applikasjon: interfacen til omgivelsene er ofte allerede definert standardene kan være på plass markedet kan være der brukerne har allerede kompetansen

12 Til slutt Oppsummering Diskusjon Hva var det sentrale budskapet


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