Presentasjon om: "Making the best of a bad job. Microbiology in schools (ages 5-18)."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:
Making the best of a bad job. Microbiology in schools (ages 5-18).
Nils Olav Sjøberg Oslo University College Faculty of Health Sciences Biomedical Laboratory Sciences Programme (bioingeniør)
University of Bergen 1971 ”Cand real” thesis: ”Regulering av transkripsjonen i T7- infiserte Escherchia coli- celler” (with 0 courses in Microbiology!)
My ”hobby” and ”FoU”-work: Writing textbooks
1 Microbiolgy, does it exist? 4 How much Science? 3 The Culture in our school 4 How much do they learn in school? 5 The teachers background? 6 Public attitudes 7 The role of the Acedemic Institutions 8 Carpe diem? Microbiology share the same fate as the other natural sciences, lack of interest from our youth. So, what happens in our schools? Microbiology exists in the 4th and 8th year of primary school, as part of “Scinece and the Environment”. But this subject has very few hours, we are almost at the bottom in Europe. In sec. school very few choose biology and other science subjects, and the trend is negative. In addition, our schools focus more on social skills than actual knowledge. In international tests, our children score very low in science, and the trend is negative. It is not necessary to have special competence to to teach science, up to 10th year, and few teachers have. Teachers in sec. school have the competence, but most of them are about 60 years old, and soon leaving. The public attitude towards science and technology has been negative for a while, most of all to gene technology. The academic institutions in science do not demand biology from school, thus undermining the position of the subject. The government now wish to strengthen science and technology in school, and has launched a takeoff. The negative public opinion towards biotechnology also may have turned. We must seize the moment, and contribute to the streghtening of Science, and thus microbiology in school. There are several ways to do this, some will be suggested at the meeting. Abstract Main points
Microbiology share the same fate as the other natural sciences, lack of Interest from our youth 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist? 1 of 6
So, what happens in our schools? Microbiology exists in grade 4 and 8 of the primary school, as part of “Science and the Environment” 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist? Elementary school (grade 1- 10) ”Science and the Environment” MB: Some in grade 4, a lot in grade 8
Grade 4 The human body and health learn about children’s illnesses and vaccination Grade 8 The human body and health study how bacteria affect physiological processes in the body learn about the major infectious diseases and their history and extent and how man has fought them learn about some other common diseases and their causes, and about how the body protects itself against illness learn how technological advances, for instance the x-ray and the discovery of penicillin and other antibiotics, have changed the epidemiological picture study examples of traditional folk medicine, including that of the Sami Natural diversitypupils should have the opportunity to become familiar with the main features of the theory of evolution, Darwin’s work, and the theories of natural selection learn the main characteristics of bacteria and viruses consider the value of bacteria in industry and in nature 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist?
1. year of secondary school Science (Naturfag) - a common subject. Hovedmomenter:..enkle modeller for karbonkretsløpet, fotosyntesen og nitrogenkretsløpet..kunne gjøre rede for forskjellen på bakterier og virus og kunne gi noen eksempler på hvordan virus og bakterier kan forårsake sykdom. De skal kunne gjøre rede for hvordan vi kan beskytte oss mot slike sykdommer (hygiene, vaksine, antibiotika)..skal kunne forklare hva vaksine er og hvordan vaksine påvirker immunsystemet. De skal kunne gjøre rede for hva som skjer ved allergiske reaksjoner og for mulig behandling av allergikere Elevene skal tilegne seg noen kunnskaper i molekylærbiologi, utviklingsbiologi og genetikk, for bedre å kunne forstå og vurdere informasjon om utviklingen innen genteknologi og bioteknologi og å kunne ta stilling til noen av de etiske spørsmålene som reiser seg i denne sammenhengen DNA-molekyler, genetikk ….kunne gjøre rede for hva genteknologi er og gi noen eksempler på hva genteknologi og bio-teknologi kan brukes til i landbruk, medisin og industri. De skal kunne gjøre rede for noen av de etiske problemene som er knyttet til bruk av genteknologi og fosterdiagnostikk 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist?
2&3. year of sec. school You have to choose Biology, chemistry, math etc. (In ”3Bi” you find some MB) 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist? Alltogether: On the paper, the curriculum is quite ambitious
”Science and the environment” Elementary school: ( )+(2+2+3)+(3+3+2) Norway: 8 %England: 22,5 % (incl. Technology) But this subject has very few hours, we are almost at the bottom in Europe Science has a very weak position in the Norwegian school 3 How much Science? England: Why complain?
”I like science in school better than most other subjects” ? Nordic pupils like science least of all, particularly the girls. 3 How much Science? YES NO
In sec. school very few choose Biology and other science subjects, 3. year 2. year 3. year 3 How much Science? Total S&T: ca.7000
..and the trend is negative 3 How much Science?
The Ideology of our (primary) school: Enhetsskolen – "School of Unity” Social skills before knowledge Equality, not difference, not élite Integration, not separation (sex, social, and level) Educational philosophy (from reform pedagogues): Learning, not teaching Guiding, not lecturing Pupils, not teachers responsibility etc. Ongoing debate: What about actual knowledge ? In addition, our school focus more on social skills than actual knowledge. 2 The Culture in our school
”Kunnskapsløftet” Knowledge - promise / takeoff new curiculum, from 2006: A takeoff for Science? The same small number of teaching hours About the same curriculum, less specific Using new terms 1 Microbiolgy, does it exist?
In International tests, our children score very low in Science 4 How much do they learn in school?
Science, PISA 4 How much do they learn in school?
and the trend is negative 4 How much do they learn in school?
Change of score in Science from PISA 2000 to PISA (Kjærnsli mfl 2004). (fra Realfag…) 4 How much do they learn in school?
Elementary school: Teachers have 3-4 years of general teachers education, almost nobody have specific education in natural science subjects You may teach chemistry and biology in grade 9-10 without any such education It is not necessary to have special competence to teach Science, up to 10. grade, and few teachers have. Lærernes utdanningsnivå I et internasjonalt perspektiv framstår norske lærere som underviser i naturfag i 8. klasse, med et høyt generelt utdanningsnivå. Når det derimot gjelder spesifikk utdanning i naturfagene, ligger de norske lærerne langt under gjennomsnittet internasjonalt (Kjærnslie, Lie, Turmo) 5 The teachers background?
Additional (in-service) education in Science the last two years? Science, 8. grade: Grønmo m.fl (PISA) 5 The teachers background? Not Norwegian teachers !
NMaster In that subject In other subject MathOther Teaching chemistry32071 %35 %45 %bio 41 % Teaching biology29172 %69 %35 %chem 56 % Teaching physics32879 %47 %62 %chem 20 % Oversikten over viser at Teachers in sec. school have the competence Biology-teachers have a Master in Biology Secondary school: Teachers must have one year of education within the subject, as part of bachelor, but a lot do have a Master. 5 The teachers background?
but they are 60 years old, and soon leaving 5 The teachers background? Who will replace them?
The public attitude towards science and technology is negative, most of all to gene technology, also among young people. 1999: Will make life:BetterWorse Solar energy794 Telecommunication806 Data / IT7115 Space research4810 Gene /bio-technology Public attitudes Good Bad
The trend may have turned. 6 Public attitudes
The Academic Institutions in Science do not demand biology from school, thus undermining the position of the subject. You do not need biology to study medicin, veterinary ! 7 The role of the Acedemic Institutions
The government now wish to strengthen Science and Technology in school, and has launched a takeoff. Describing the sad situation Suggesting a lot of measures. Read it ! 8 Carpe diem? I have been describing a sad situation, but of course – there is hope:
A.Tiltak for helhet i utdanningsløpet: kvalitet og kvantitet A.8 Bygge regionale nettverk for å motivere til yrkesvalg innen matematikk, naturvitenskap og teknologi A.9 Krav om realfag for å begynne på naturvitenskapelige studier ved universitetene A.12 Forskningsformidling som pliktarbeid i forskerutdanningen Utvikling av realfagene Lærerkompetanse og lærerutdanning D. Formidling til allmennheten D.2 Etablere arena for møte mellom realfagsutdannere, politikere og næringslivsledere E. Resultatoppfølging Suggesting a lot of measures. 8 Carpe diem?
The negative public opinion also may have turned Inge Ramberg; Nordmenns forhold til forskning og teknologi resultater fra en intervjuundersøkelse; NIFU/STEP Skriftserie 21/2004.Nordmenns forhold til forskning og teknologi resultater fra en intervjuundersøkelse 8 Carpe diem?
We must grasp the chance, and all contribute to turn the negative trend of Science in this country. There are several ways to do this Teachers in primary school need education and help Teachers in secondary school need support The children and the public need interesting cases and stories The newspapers need good stuff Cooperate with existing ”school labs” 8 Carpe diem? You are the experts and know the good stories !
Thank you for your attention Sentrale internettsider Realfag naturligvishttp://odin.dep.no/filarkiv/235427/Realfag.pdfhttp://odin.dep.no/filarkiv/235427/Realfag.pdf Læreplanerhttp://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/ TIMSS, Norgehttp://www.timss.no/http://www.timss.no/ PISAhttp://www.pisa.no/http://www.pisa.no/ Om kunnskapsløftethttp://www.kunnskapsloeftet.no/ Kunnskapsløftethttp://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/dav/119407aedb.pdfhttp://www.kunnskapsloeftet.no/http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/dav/119407aedb.pdf