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Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day Norway Unn Røyneland University of Oslo High fidelity or pure jalla ? The problem of purism in culture,

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Presentasjon om: "Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day Norway Unn Røyneland University of Oslo High fidelity or pure jalla ? The problem of purism in culture,"— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day Norway Unn Røyneland University of Oslo High fidelity or pure jalla ? The problem of purism in culture, language and esthetics November , Høgskolen i Hedmark

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3 The language situation in Norway

4 Åsne 17 years from Tynset Åsne: = viss vi kjæm til Oslo så ser dæm på oss som bygdetullinger det trur jæ og bønder dumme bønder [det trur] jæ =e= Åsne:= if we come to Oslo then they look at us as rural weirdoes I think and peasants stupid peasants [I think] I =e=

5 Dialect regional, social or ethnic variety of a language geographically determined variety - geolect Standard overarching spoken variety closely related to the written standard norm the spoken East Norwegian standard, close to the written Bokmål standard

6 Modern Norwegian dialect change: regional dialect levelling horizontal (dialect-dialect) levelling vertical (dialect-standard) levelling complete convergence incomplete convergence emergence of intermediate forms

7 Identity Dynamic, multi-layered, changeable and negotiable Social identity here operationalized trough affiliations of different kinds: to social groups, to the local community and through socio-cultural orientation ex. towards local lifestyle and local norms or towards urban lifestyle and urban norms

8 Comparative apparent time study of two neighbouring areas Areas of study: Røros and Tynset Located 50 km apart Belong traditionally to different dialect areas, but still they have many dialect features in common Ethnographic fieldwork, interview with 27 adolescents and 10 adults 16 features, 12 social characteristics Røros Tynset

9 Palatalization of long alveolars and alveolar clusters ball ba[  ], kveld kve[  ], spesielt spesie[  c] mann ma [  ], band ba[  ], sant sa[  c]

10 Gliding scale /l6/ [l6 ] alveolar [  ] palatal [lJ] palatalized /l/ [  ] alveolar [  ] post-alveolar laminal apical alveolar post-alveolar local: palatal – palatalized – apical post-alveolar – apical alveolar – laminal alveolar: standard a   i  

11 Spectrogram of an intermediate variant a l l e k j e n n e a l l e å    (everybody knows everybody and)

12 Long alveolars and alveolar clusters in Røros og Tynset 765 tokens 16 informants 1192 tokens 21 informants RØROSTYNSET

13 Use of the different l-qualities according to group membership and local affiliation Cruisers School/sport School/culture Skaters

14 Carola frå Røros Carola:[[=e=]] mer enn mange ja trur je [vertfall] tå dæm =e= kule folka som hate Røros og-- dæm prøve jo å legg om bevisst ’a = dæm skal jo itt snakke noe rørosisk for det er jo = ikke noe kult (LATTER) [[for å si det sånn]] det er bondespråk har je fått inntrykk av at det er sånn [=] men = je vet itt je = det er itt så mange som snakke [[kav rørosisk vet je]] Carola: [[=e=]] yes more than most I think [at least] of the =e= cool people who hate Røros and– they consciously try to change = they won’t speak the dialect because it’s not cool (LAUGHTER) [[to put it like that]] it’s the language of peasants that’s my impression [=] but = I don’ know = there are not so many who speak [[the traditional dialect]]

15 Local orientation traditionalist Cultural orientation, local Mobil, but traditional Tradition Modernity LOCALURBAN Urban academic, mobil Local featuresLevelled features

16 Ina 17 years from Tynset Ina:nei det er vel kanskje en del som ikke føler at dæm er-- har noe– at det er noe å føle tilhørighet om for vi har ikke noe sånn noe å vår stolt av på Tynset som dæm har på Røros så at vi føler behov for å = ja det kan godt vår [= ] men det har noe med forskjellig utgangspunkt og det da = at dæm har mer-- = en rørosing er en rørosing men en tynseting er noe litt mer udefinerbart det finnes mange sånne som meg sånn = Ina:I suppose there are some people who don’t feel that they are = have something- that there is anything to feel affiliation with because we don’t have anything to be proud about in Tynset like they have in Røros so we feel the need to = yes that may be [=] but it’s got to do with different points of departure too = that they have more- = a “rørosing” is a “rørosing” but a “tynseting” is something a bit more indefinable there are many people like me like =

17 Litteratur Abrahamsen, J. E Utvalde palatal-tal: metodekritisk ljos på avpalataliseringi i yngre mål i Herøy på Sunnmøre. Trondheim: Hovedoppgave i nordisk – NTNU. Auer, Peter & Frans Hinskens 1996.The convergence and divergence of dialects in Europe. New and not so new developments in an old area. Sociolinguistica No. 10,1-25 (ed. Ammon, Mattheier, Nelde) Tübingen: Max Niemeyer A Typology of European Dialect/Standard Constellations, or Europe’s Sociolinguistic Unity. Plenary paper given at the 34th Societas Linguistica Europaea Meeting in Leuven, Belgium – Blom, Jan P. & John J. Gumperz Social meaning in linguistic structure: code-switching in Norway. In Directions in Sociolinguistics, Gumperz, J. & D. Hymes (eds.), New York: Academic Press. Dahl, O. C Lateraler i en trønderdialekt, i I Jahr, E. H. & O. Lorentz (red.) Fonologi/ Phonology. Studier i språkvitenskap 1. Oslo: Novus, Endresen, R. T Fonetikk og fonologi. Ei elementær innføring. Oslo: Universistetsforlaget Språklydlære: fonetikk og fonologi, i Endresen, Simonsen & Sveen (red.). Innføring i lingvistikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Hanssen, E Nordland, i Jahr, E.-H. Den store Dialektboka, Oslo: Novus. Jahr, E. H L-fonema i Oslo bymål. I Jahr, E. H. & O. Lorentz (red.) Fonologi/Phonology. Studier i språkvitenskap 1. Oslo: Novus, Ladefoged, P Vowels and Consonants. An Introduction to the Sounds of Language. Massachusetts USA & Oxford UK: Blackwell. Moen, I. & H. G. Simonsen Kontaktmønstre for apikale plosiver i østnorsk, MONS 7,

18 Litteratur forts. Mæhlum, Brit Dialektal sosialisering. En studie av barn og ungdoms språklige strategier i Longyearbyen på Svalbard. Oslo: Novus. - (1996). Codeswitching in Hemnesberget – Myth or reality? Journal of Pragmatics 25, Røyneland, Unn Språkleg regionalisering på Røros og Tynset. Målbryting 2, a. Is age-grading always a potential problem in apparent time studies? In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Language Variation in Europe, Fontana, J., L. McNally, T. M. Turell, E. Vallduví (eds.), (forthcoming). Dialects in Norway - catching up with the rest of Euope? In Are dialects in Europe dying? Special issue of The Internatonal Journal of the Sociology of Language. Sandøy, Helge The Diffusion of a New Morphology in Norwegian Dialects. Folia Linguistica 32, Utviklingslinjer i moderne norske dialektar. Folkmålsstudier 39, Simonsen, H. G. & I. Moen En elektronisk database over norske språklyder. MONS 9 Oslo: Novus, Skjekkeland, Martin (2000). Dialektutviklinga i Noreg dei siste 15 åra – drøfting og analyse. Skriftserien nr. 67, Høgskolen i Agder. Vold Ulset, K. A Språklig regionalisering i Trøndelag. En studie av ungdommers talemål i nedre Melhus. Hovudoppgåve i nordisk språk, INL, NTNU.

19 Universitetet i Oslo Historisk-filosofisk fakultet Unn Røyneland Institutt for nordistikk og litteraturvitskap Pb Blindern 0315 Oslo e-post:

20 - Regionalization around regional centers in north and west – both horizontal og vertical levelling - Regionalization towards Oslo and East Norwegian standard in the eastern part – mostly vertical levelling Different tendencies

21 Regionalization the region gradually replaces the local community as the important linguistic and mental orientation unit more important to display regional affiliation and identity than strictly local local “places” do not stop being important


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