Presentasjon lastes. Vennligst vent

Presentasjon lastes. Vennligst vent

Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 1 Business Logistics - an overview Göran Persson Handelshøyskolen BI.

Liknende presentasjoner


Presentasjon om: "Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 1 Business Logistics - an overview Göran Persson Handelshøyskolen BI."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 1 Business Logistics - an overview Göran Persson Handelshøyskolen BI

2 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 2 Physical Distribution Marketing Logistics Materials Management Logistics Engineering Production Management Operations Management Industrial Logistics Business Logistics Logistics Management Integrated Logistics Management Supply Management Logistics pipeline Management Distribution Management Supply Chain Management

3 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 3 Business Logistics design and management of the physical flow of goods and the related managerial processes from point of origin to end user (or disposal)

4 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 4 ²²²²²²²²²²²² ² ²²²²²² Suppliers Raw materials storage ² ² O O O Finished goods storage Regional warehouses ****************** Customers Production BUSINESS LOGISTICS - a flow orientation Planning, control and coordination of the flow of materials and products from the sources of supply to the final customers PurchasingPhysical distribution Business logistics

5 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 5 Order processing DistributionAccounting Sales Manu- facturing Sales Forecasting Purchasing Customer Place order Transmit order Report order Scedule production Check availability and reorder Request materials Deliver Invoice Funds The logistics process spans most functions of the business demands cross-functional planning, coordination and control

6 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 6 Logistics efficiency Company stucture Variables which strongly and systems influence the company efficiency and profitability The company organisation Planning- and control systems Transport, ware- housing and materials handling Revenue which varies with the customer service The costs of running the logistics systems The inventory costs

7 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 7

8 8 Scope of activities Transportation Storage Packaging Materials Handling Order Processing Forecasting Production Planning Purchasing Customer Service Site Location Other Activities

9 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 9 Reoccuring problem areas and perceived inefficiencies long lead-times lead-time variations throughput time long and uncertain excess inventories obsolete materials many slow-movers poor service levels communication and coordination among players (functions, organisations) poor control poor forecasts costs too high - order processing/order handling - transportation - warehouse operation etc.

10 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 10 Major tasks for the logistics manager: Opportunity assessment - Diagnostic review - Pre-study for identifying inefficiencies and opportunities Logistics infrastructure design and action plan - Exploring the link between overall strategy and logistics - Creating the strategic logistics vision - Evaluating selected options - Develop a logistics strategy Operational capability improvement - Logistics Process Redesign and Cont. improvement - Creating faster and more reliable processes - Improve flexibility in production and distribution

11 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 11 Product flow synchronisation - Synchronised production - Continuous replenishment - Integrated suppliers - Automated ordering - Capacity management - Integrated and coordinated decision making (Acting and reacting as one system) Organisational issues - Inter-organisational processes - Internal logistics processes - Work processes

12 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 12 To understand the physical flow of goods Where is the capital tied-up How long - coverage in days or weeks Why is it there - functions “Flow analysis”

13 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 13 output/tidsenhetinput/tidsenh. Gj.sn. leveringstid bestillt og ikke levert/ input pr. tidsenh. Gj.sn. leveringstid bestillt og ikke levert/ output pr. tidsenh. Gj.sn. gjennomløpstid EKS: Prod. områdeDekningstidVariasjon mellom prod.grupper Gj.sn.siste 12 månSiste mån12 månSiste mån A3 mån3 mån2 - 4 mån mån B3 mån5 mån1 - 2 mån mån C 4 mån7 mån mån mån Kan gjennomføres på ulike nivåer: totalt hovedgrupper produktgrupper artikkelnr.nivåen

14 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 14 Basic Techniques (1)DEMAND ANALYSIS Forecasting Forecast error (2)INVENTORY CONTROL Economic Order Quantity Safety stock ABC-analysis (3)PRODUCTION CONTROL (AND WAREHOUSING) Capacity planning Scheduling Lay-out planning Line balancing techniques (4)TRANSPORTATION Location models Routing Sceduling

15 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 15 FORECASTING forecast and forecast error expected demand and expected variation Item, product group, total output - different levels - kr Two dominating techniques - moving average - exponential smoothing

16 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 16 INVENTORY CONTROL... when to order?... how much? Order quantity turn-over stock Safety stock Stock has different functions meaning: different cost elements involved Average inventory = turn-over stock + safety stock Inventory turn-over = Demand (yr)/av. inventory Coverage = actual stock level / output per time unit

17 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 17 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Do I have the right capacity? - where are the bottlenecks? - what can be done about them? Am I working on the right job right now? - priorities?

18 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 18 TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS (used by logisticians) SUPPLY CHAIN MAPPING AND MODELLING PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES DEMAND FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS CHANGEOVER REDUCTION PROCESS STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL SUPPLIER ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES SUPPLY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ACTIVITY BASED COSTING VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS NETWORK ANALYSIS BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS (databases) CHANGE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS ORGANISATION DESIGN MODELS PROCESS ANALYSIS TOOLS (such as cause and effect diagrams and process flow charts) STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS (such as Pareto charts, histograms & control charts)

19 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 19

20 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 20 60s Total cost Analytical approach Internal perspective Optimising inventory costs Optimising transportation costs Decision models

21 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 21 70s Systems Theory Synergy Design and management of Delivery Systems Holistic (the flow of materials) Co-ordination Logistics Management

22 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 22 80s Systems Theory Just-in-time Economy of Scope vs economy of scale Capital tied-up Zero Defect & Zero Inventory Elimination of waste Order production

23 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 23 90s Value chains Competitive advantage Time based management Responsiveness, quality, and productivity in the logistics processes

24 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 24 00s Shareholder value Supply chains Focus on interorganisational co-laboration Networks and relationships Positioning and operational excellence Supply Chain Management

25 THREE PERSPECTIVES CHANNEL Company Industry Supply Production Logistics Finance Marketing/ /Accounting Sales Comp Source: Shapiro/Heskett, 1985

26 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 26 THREE PERSPECTIVES 1. Company * To create an efficient and effective materials flow through an effective internal structure and through an efficient co-ordination of logistics activities * Focus on internal relationships * Delivery service, logistics costs and capital tied-up

27 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson CHANNEL * To create an effective co-operation and co-ordination in the channel, as well as an effective network structure * Focus on external relations (suppliers of materials, components, services,and customers) 3. Industry * To achieve competitiveness through a logistics strategy * Customer value and shareholder value

28 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 28 Fem trender i utviklingen mot "leading edge logistics" Fokus på hele verdiskapningskjeden konkurranse vs outsourcing spesialisering vs koordinering Prosessorientering TQM; TBM; Re-engineering etc. Prosessorienterte organisasjonsstrukturer Kundedrevet strategi : "Customer focus" & å skape verdi for kunde Differensierte leveringsprosesser Videre utvikling av strategiske allianser Mellom "marked og hierarki" Samspill i netverk Leverandørsamarbeide Prosessorienterte målemetoder Prosessorientert måling av prestasjon og effektivitet Benchmarking

29 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 29 Lev Kunde F1F2F3 Trinn 1: Punktinnsatser i verdikjedens ulike ledd. Fokus på kostnadsreduksjoner i ulike funksjoner, f.eks. innkjøp eller distribusjon. "Funksjonell kostnadseffektivitet". Helhet: Logistikkens utvikling i en bedrift

30 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 30 Trinn 2: Integrasjon av de interne logistikk-prosessene. Fokus på felles bidrag fra ulike funksjoner for å oppnå en gitt leveringsservice mot kunde. Samordning av ulike interne aktører. "Intern kostnadseffektivitet". LevF2F3F1Kund

31 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 31 LeverandørBedriftenKunde Trinn 3: Synergier gjennom ekstern samordning.Logistikk som nøkkelelement for å skape konkurransefordeler. Fokus på hvordan logistikk skaper verdi for kunde. "Kundetilpasset kostnadseffektiv tillgjenglighet"

32 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 32 Outsourcing som strategisk tilnærmning Konsentrasjon av bedriftens ressurser på et set av “kjernekompetanser”, hvor man har mulighet å oppnå en definerbar fordel fremfor konkurrentene gjennom å skape unik verdi for kunde Outsource andre aktiviteter, inkludert mange som av tradisjon er blitt betraktet som nødvendige interne aktiviteter og funksjoner Skape strategiske allianser med et set komplementære levrendører for å redusere risiko eller for å skape konkurransefordeler knyttet til posisjon eller prosess

33 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 33 Hvorfor “Outsourcing”? 1. Bedre fokusering på kjernevirksomheten 2. Tilgang til “world-class” produkter/processer/tjenester/teknologi 3. Raskere omstilling 4. Fordele risk 5. Frigjøre ressurser (også ledelsesressurser) for annen (kjerne-) virksomhet 6. Redusere investeringsbehov - konsentrere 7. Bedre Cash-flow 8. Redusere og styre driftskostnader 9. Ressurser ikke tilgjengelige innen egen organisasjon 10. Funksjonen er vanskelig å lede/styre Kilde:Outsourcing Institute, bedrifter i perioden -91/-96

34 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson Prosessorientering som strategi: Hvordan skape konkurransefordel Posisjonell fordel - strukturell fordel * Hva og hvor * Produkt- / marked 2. Prestasjonsfordel - prosess kompetanse * Hvordan konkurrere gitt posisjonen * “Operational excellence” * Hvordan bli "best i klassen"

35 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 35 Leveransprocesserna Fokuseringen flyttas från "funktionell kompetens" till "affärsprocess kompetens", där leverantörerna är integrerade i processen. Affärs process

36 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson Stor andel av våra kostnader 2. Andelen av de totala kostnaderna ökar 3. Potential: en minskad inköpskrona (eller bättre kostkrona ytill skillnad från priskrona) är en vinstkrona 4. Leverantören får ökad betydelse för våra leveransprocesser 5. Ökad komplexitet i inköpsarbetet ökar dess betydelse köpta produkter och komponenter mer sofistikerade högre teknikinnehåll andel internationella köp ökar 6. Ny insikt: fördelar med långsiktiga relationer coh allianser gemensamma satsningar, öppenhet, ömsesidigt förtroende, flexibilitet Innkjøpets betydelse

37 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 37

38 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 38 Benchmarking 1. En prosess for å sette realistiske og "riktige" målsettninger 2.Oppdage og forstå hvilken praksis som er nødvendig for å nå målene 3.Motivere og oppmuntre organisasjonen til kontinuerlig forbedring av sine ytelser for at den skal bli mer konkurransedyktig 4.Legitimere kort- og langsiktige mål ved å knytte dem til observerte ytelser hos de ledende konkurrentene 5.Konsentrere organisasjonens oppmerksomhet og innsamot de viktigste leveringsprosessene

39 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 39 From.. function profit products transaction inventory To... process profitability customers relationships information Leading to... Integral management of materials & goods flow Ressource management and asset utilization Focus on markets and customer service Co-makership and co-shipper partnerships Demand-based replenishment & quick response systems

40 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 40 Europeans leaders - prioriterte tiltak Forbedring av logistikken gjennom 1. Process reenginerring 2. Effktivisering av distr.struktur 3. Målstyrte grupper 4. Omlokalisering 5. Differensiering av leveranseprosesser Forbedring av kundeservicen gjennom 1. TQM 2. Fokus på kjernen 3. Differensiering av leveranseprosesser Bedre fleksibilitet gjennom 1. Målstyrte teams 2. Strategiske allianser 3. Prosessorient./TBM

41 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 41 Vinnarna 1.Kundorientering inom hela organisationen. 2.Flexibel och lärande organisation. 3.Arbeta med värdekedjor, ökat värde för kunden (value added, kvalitet). 4.Individen som pådrivare i förändringsprocessen.Individens och arbetsgruppens förmåga att genomföra förändringar och driva processen måste vara stor. 5.Använda information- och kommunikations-teknologin fullt ut.

42 Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 42 Vinnarna 6. Tid som konkurrensmedel. 7. En tydlig vision som drivkraft. 8. Globalt perspektiv vid utveckling av strategier. 9. Innovationskraft och entreprenörskap. 10. Platta organisationshierarkier, inga hierarkier alls. 11. Nätverksstrukturer.


Laste ned ppt "Norwegian School of Management, BI Göran Persson 1 Business Logistics - an overview Göran Persson Handelshøyskolen BI."

Liknende presentasjoner


Annonser fra Google