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PHYSIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY MEASURES THEORY Cato Grønnerød PSY.

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Presentasjon om: "PHYSIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY MEASURES THEORY Cato Grønnerød PSY."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 PHYSIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY MEASURES THEORY Cato Grønnerød PSY

2 FYSIOLOGI OG PERSONLIGHET MÅLING TEORIER Cato Grønnerød PSY1006

3 FYSIOLOGISK TILNÆRMING  Hjernefunksjon Temporallappene Nevrotransmittere  Autonome nervesystem Sympatiske og parasympatiske systemer  Hormonelt system Kjønnshormoner Adrenalin, kortisol  Eksterne agenter

4 SHELDON’S PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO PERSONALITY  Argued that body type determines personality  Did not use blind ratings, most later research failed to replicate  Some work suggesting relationship between body type and job choice  Physiological personality psychologists today do not focus on global variables such as body type © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 HISTORISKE TEORIER  Kroppsvæsker (Galen) Flegmatisk: passiv, rolig, tankefull Sangvinsk: glad, utadvendt og livlig Kolerisk: ustabil, aggressiv og oppfarende Melankolsk: nedstemt og pessimistisk  Kroppstyper (Sheldon) Ektomorf: intelligente, fryktsomme Mesomorf: populære, hardtarbeidende Endomorf: glade, late, skjødesløse

6 PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES COMMONLY USED IN PERSONALITY RESEARCH  Electrodermal Activity (Skin Conductance)  Cardiovascular activity  Brain Activity  Other measures: Biochemical analyses of blood and saliva © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 FYSIOLOGISKE MÅLINGER  Hudmotstand (Skin Conductance, Electrodermal Activity) Elektroder eller sensorer på huden  Kardiovaskulær aktivitet Blodtrykk, puls  Hjerneaktivitet Elektroencefalografi, fMRI, PET  Biokjemiske analyser av blod og slim

8 ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY (EDA): SKIN CONDUCTANCE  Most obtained by electrodes or sensors placed on the skin surface  Advantage: Noninvasive, no discomfort  Disadvantage: Movement constrained © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY (EDA): SKIN CONDUCTANCE  Electrodermal activity—due to increased sweat with arousal, skin conductance of electricity increases  Can measure responses to various stimuli, including sudden noises, emotionally charged pictures, pain, anxiety, fear, guilt  Some people show EDA in the absence of external stimuli—associated with anxiety and neuroticism © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 HUDMOTSTAND (EDA)  Aktivering av autonomt nervesystem -> økt aktivitet i svettekjertlene -> økt mengde saltvann -> økt ledbarhet for strøm  Responser til forskjellige stimuli Fight or flight-respons Plutselige lyder, emosjonelt ladede bilder, smerte, angst, frykt, skyldfølelse

11 HUDMOTSTAND (EDA)  EDA i fravær av eksterne stimuli Angst og nevrotisisme Fortrengning, ubevisste prosesser?  Fordeler Ikke-invaderende Kjenner ingenting  Ulemper Begrenset bevegelighet ”Påklistret” følelse

12 CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY  Blood pressure—measure of, e.g., stress reactivity  Heart rate—increases with anxiety, fear, arousal, cognitive effort © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY  Cardiac reactivity—greater than normal increase in blood pressure and heart rate when performing task such as backward serial subtraction Associated with Type A personality—impatience, competitiveness, hostility Cardiac reactivity (and Type A) associated with coronary heart disease © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 KARDIOVASKULÆR AKTIVITET  Blodtrykk Diastolisk trykk: mellom hjerteslag Systolisk trykk: maksimum trykk ved hjerteslag Øker ved stress  Puls Øker ved fight-flight-aktivering angst, frykt, generell aktivering

15 KARDIOVASKULÆR AKTIVITET  Hjertereaktivitet Både blodtrykk og puls øker ved kognitive anstrengelser Særlig koblet med stress  Type A-personlighet Fiendtlighet, utålmodighet, konkurranseinnstilling Øker risiko for hjerteproblemer

16 BRAIN ACTIVITY  Brain spontaneously produces small amounts of electrical activity; can be  measured by electrodes on scalp— electroencephalograph (EEG)  Evoked potential technique—uses EEG, but the participant is given a stimulus and the researcher assess specific brain response to stimulus © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 BRAIN ACTIVITY  Brain imaging techniques—map structure and function of brain Positron emission tomography (PET) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 HJERNEAKTIVITET  EEG: elektroencefalogram Elektroder som registrerer små elektriske signaler i hjernen Aktivitetsmønstre i forskjellige deler av hjernen Evoked potential: reaksjoner på stimulering  PET: Positron Emission Tomography  fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

19 HJERNEAKTIVITET  Canli et al. (2001) fMRI mens personer så på positivt og negativt emosjonelt ladede bilder Nevrotisisme korrelerte med økt aktivering i temporallappene ved negative bilder Ekstroversjon korrelerte med økt aktivering i temporallappene ved positive bilder

20 ANDRE FYSIOLOGISKE MÅL  Immunsystem Endres ved stress og emosjoner  Testosteron Uhemmede, aggressive og risikofylte atferdsmønstre  Kortisol Høyere nivåer hos sjenerte barn  MAO: Monoaminoksidase Sensation Seeking

21 PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED THEORIES OF PERSONALITY  Extraversion-Introversion  Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment  Sensation Seeking  Neurotransmitters and Personality  Morningness-Eveningness  Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 FYSIOLOGIBASERTE FORSKJELLER

23 FYSIOLOGIBASERTE PERSONLIGHETSTEORIER  Ekstroversjon-Introversjon  Sensitivitet for belønning og straff  Sensation Seeking  Nevrotransmittere og personlighet  A- og B-mennesker  Hjerneasymmetri og affektiv stil

24 EXTRAVERSION-INTROVERSION  Measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  High extraversion: Talkative, outgoing, likes meeting new people and going to new places, active, bored easily, hates routine  Low extraversion: Quiet, withdrawn, prefers being alone or with a few friends to large crowds, prefers routines, prefers familiar to unexpected © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 EKSTROVERSJON – INTROVERSJON  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)  Høy ekstroversjon Snakkesalig, utadvendt, liker sosiale sammenhenger og nye steder, aktiv, kjeder seg lett, hater rutine  Lav ekstroversjon (Introversjon) Stille, tilbaketrukket, foretrekker å være alene eller med få venner, liker rutiner og det kjente frafor det ukjente

26 EYSENCK’S THEORY  Introverts have a higher level than extraverts of activity in the brain’s ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)  People strive to keep ARAS activity at optimal level—introverts work to decrease and avoid stimulation; extraverts work to increase and seek out stimulation

27 EYSENCKS TEORI  Introverte har et høyere aktiveringsnivå i retikulærsubstansen (RS) enn ekstroverte  Forsøker å holde ARAS-aktivitet på et optimalt nivå Introverte demper og unngår stimulering Ekstroverte øker og søker stimulering

28 EYSENCK’S THEORY  Research indicates that introverts and extraverts are NOT at different resting levels, but introverts ARE more reactive to moderate levels of stimulation than extraverts  This work led Eysenck to revise his theory—the difference between introverts and extraverts lies in arousability, not in baseline arousal © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 EYSENCKS TEORI  Forsøk viser at introverte og ekstroverte ikke ligger på forskjellig hvilenivå  Men: introverte er mer reaktive for moderate stimuleringsnivåer  Eysenck reviderte sin teori Forskjellen mellom introverte og ekstroverte ligger i aktiverbarhet, ikke i hvilenivå

30 EYSENCK’S THEORY  When given a choice, extraverts prefer higher levels of stimulation than introverts  Geen (1984): Introverts and extraverts choose different levels of stimulation, but equivalent in arousal under chosen stimulation © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 EYSENCKS TEORI  Når de får velge foretrekker ekstroverte høyere stimuleringsnivå enn introverte  Geen (1984) Introverte og ekstroverte velger forskjellig stimuleringsnivå Ekvivalent aktivering under den valgte stimuleringen

32 EYSENCKS TEORI: GEEN (1984)

33 SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND PUNISHMENT  Personality based on two hypothesized brain systems  Behavioral Activation System (BAS): Responsive to incentives (cues to reward) and regulates approach behavior © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING OG STRAFF  To systemer i hjernen  Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Mottakelig for incentiver, tegn på belønning Regulerer tilnærmingsatferd Produserer impulsivitet Hemmer tilbaketrekning Øker aktivering jo nærmere målet personen kommer Lærer best ved belønning

35 SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND PUNISHMENT  Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS): Responsive to cues to punishment, frustration, uncertainty, and motivates ceasing, inhibiting, or avoidance behavior  Active BIS produces anxiety, active BAS produces impulsivity © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING OG STRAFF  Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Mottakelig for tegn på straff og frustrasjon Regulerer tilbaketrekkingsatferd Produserer angst Hemmer tilnærming Lærer best ved straff  Under separat nevral kontroll  To ulike læringssystemer

37 SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND PUNISHMENT  Integration with Eysenck’s model: Impulsive = high extraversion, moderate neuroticism; Anxious = moderate introversion, high neuroticism  According to Gray, impulsive people do not learn well from punishment because of weak BIS; learn better from reward— supported by research © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING OG STRAFF  Integrasjon med Eysencks modell Høy BAS/Impulsiv = høy ekstroversjon? Høy BIS/Engstelig = høy nevrotisisme?

39 SENSATION SEEKING  Tendency to seek out thrilling, exciting activities, take risks, avoid boredom  Early sensory deprivation research  Hebb’s theory of optimal level of arousal © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 SENSATION SEEKING  Tendens til å oppsøke spennende aktiviteter, ta risiko, unngå kjedsomhet  Hebbs teori om optimalt aktiveringsnivå Hvis underaktivert er aktivering belønnende Hvis overaktivert er mindre aktivering belønnende Vitalbalanse?

41 SENSATION SEEKING  Zuckerman: High sensation seekers are less tolerant of sensory deprivation; require much stimulation to get to optimal level of arousal  Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale  Moderate positive correlation between extraversion and sensation seeking © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

42 SENSATION SEEKING  Zuckermans modell Sensation seekers er mindre tolerante for sensorisk deprivasjon Behøver mye stimulering for å oppnå et optimalt aktiveringsnivå Moderat positiv korrelasjon mellom skårer på Zuckermans Sensation Seeking Scale og ekstroversjon Høyere sensation seekers Opprørspoliti, fallskjermhoppere, spillere

43 SENSATION SEEKING  Physiological basis for sensation seeking Neurotransmitters—chemicals in nerve cells are responsible for the transmission of nerve impulse from one cell to another Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)—enzyme that maintains a proper level of neurotransmitters © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND PERSONALITY  Dopamine—associated with pleasure  Serotonin—associated with depression and other mood disorders  Norepinepherine—associated with fight or flight response © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 NEVROTRANSMITTERE  Dopamin Assosiert med nytelse, glede, impulsivitet  Serotonin Assosiert med depresjon og stemningslidelser, lav impulsivitet  Norepinefrin Assosiert med fight/flight-responsen

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47 SENSATION SEEKING  Physiological basis for sensation seeking Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter; too much MAO = too little neurotransmitter High sensation seekers have low levels of MAO, producing a need for stimulation to reach the optimal level of arousal © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

48 SENSATION SEEKING  Monoaminoxidase (MAO) Enzym som regulerer signalstoffnivået i nervesynapsen ved nedbryting For mye MAO = for lite signalstoff For lite MAO = for mye signalstoff  Høy sensation seeking relatert til lavt MAO- nivå i blodet  Lavere hemning og kontroll -> høyere impulsivitet Ikke søking mot optimalt nivå

49 NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND PERSONALITY  Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Model Novelty seeking—low levels of dopamine Harm avoidance—low levels of serotonin Reward dependence—low levels of norephinepherine © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

50 NEVROTRANSMITTERE  Cloningers tredimensjonale personlighetsmodell Søking etter noe nytt (novelty seeking): lavt dopaminnivå Unngåelse av skade: lavt serotoninnivå Avhengighet av belønning: lavt norepinefrinnivå  Type 4 dopaminreseptorgenet (D4DR) Visse kombinasjoner på genet knyttet til novelty seeking

51 MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS  Being a “morning-type” or “evening-type” of person is a stable characteristic  Due to differences in underlying biological rhythms © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

52 MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS  Many biological processes fluctuate around a hour cycle—circadian rhythm; e.g., body temperature, endocrine secretion rates  But wide individual differences are in the circadian rhythm, identified through temporal isolation studies © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS  Individuals with shorter circadian rhythms hit peak body temperature and alertness earlier in day, get sleepy earlier, than individuals with longer rhythm  Individuals with shorter rhythm tend to be morning persons; individuals with longer rhythms tend to be evening persons © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

54 MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS  Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire  Cross-cultural replication and documentation of stability of characteristic © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

55 BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND AFFECTIVE STYLE  Left and right sides of the brain are specialized, with asymmetry in control of psychological functions  Using EEG, can measure brain waves, such as alpha wave—an inverse indicator of brain activity © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

56 HJERNEASYMMETRI OG AFFEKTER  Hjernens høyre og venstre deler er spesialiserte, kontrollerer forskjellige psykologiske funksjoner  EEG: alfabølger Jevne bølger på 8-12 Hz Rolig, avslappet, uoppmerksom Invers indikator på hjerneaktivering

57 BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND AFFECTIVE STYLE  Left frontal hemisphere is more active than the right when a person is experiencing pleasant emotions; right is more active than left with unpleasant emotions  Patterns replicated in adults, children, and infants © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

58 HJERNEASYMMETRI OG AFFEKTER  Ved positive affekter Venstre frontale cortex mer aktiv  Ved negative affekter Høyre frontale cortex mer aktiv  Samme mønster funnet hos voksne, barn, spebarn og aper

59 BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND AFFECTIVE STYLE  Research indicates that the tendency to exhibit asymmetry (favoring left over right, or right over left activation) is a stable individual characteristic  Dispositionally positive persons show greater left frontal EEG activity; dispositionally negative persons show greater right frontal EEG activity © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

60 HJERNEASYMMETRI OG AFFEKTER  Tendens til å vise asymmetri er en stabil individuell karakteristikk over tid  Disposisjonelt positive personer (BAS- preferanse) viser større venstresidig aktivitet  Disposisjonelt negative personer (BIS- preferanse) viser større høyresidig aktivitet

61 BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND AFFECTIVE STYLE  Conclusion: Person’s affective lifestyle may have origins in, or be predicted by a pattern of asymmetry in frontal brain activation © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

62 SUMMARY AND EVALUATION  Study of personality can be approached biologically  Two ways to think about how physiological variables are useful in personality theory and research… © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

63 SUMMARY AND EVALUATION  Use physiological measures as variables that may be correlated with personality traits  View physiological events as providing causal substrate for personality trait © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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