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Skipshopphugging – gjeldende og fremtidig internasjonalt rammeverk Sveinung Oftedal seniorrådgiver.

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Presentasjon om: "Skipshopphugging – gjeldende og fremtidig internasjonalt rammeverk Sveinung Oftedal seniorrådgiver."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Skipshopphugging – gjeldende og fremtidig internasjonalt rammeverk Sveinung Oftedal seniorrådgiver

2 2 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Opphugging av skip – Hvordan ble det en norsk sak? •1997 – Avisen ”Baltimore Sun” fikk Pulizer prisen •1998 – Bergens Tidende reportasje fra Alang-India: «Sykdom, ulykker og brutal død følger i kjølvannet når utrangerte norske skip strander på verdens største skipsopphuggingsplass» •Statsråden (MD)  internasjonal løsning i IMO

3 3 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Ble fulgt opp av: Kartlegging •Veritasrapporten (MD/NR/MARMIL) Decommissioning of Ships - Environmental Protection and Ship Demolition Practices ãIndia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kina har 90% ãBoom kommer ãMange miljøfarlige stoffer -håndteres uforsvarlig •Ulfsteinrapporten (MD) Legal Aspects of Scrapping of Ships ãGjeldende rett er ikke tilstrekkelig ãIMO-løsning anbefales ãGrunnlag for håndhevelse av gjeldende rett (SFT kontroll)

4 4 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Internasjonal aktivitet •1999 – Norsk dokument til IMOs miljøkomite (MEPC 43) om å ta inn saken på IMOs arbeidsprogram •1999 – Norge tok opp saken i Baselkonvensjonen •Også på ILOs agenda •CSD 7 pekte mot IMO som koordinerende organisasjon • : 3 sett med retningslinjer

5 5 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet The 3-set UN Guidelines •Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships (Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, 13 Dec. 2002, Decision VI/24); •IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling (twenty-third session of the Assembly, 5 December 2003 Resolution A.962(23); and •Safety and Health in Shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and Turkey, approved by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office (289th session, March 2004).

6 6 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Frivillige retningslinjer var ikke tilstrekkelig •24th Session of IMO Assembly adopted Resolution A.981(24) in December 2005 and agreed to request: ” the Marine Environment Protection Committee to develop a new legally-binding instrument on ship recycling….” •Target date: consideration and adoption of the instrument in the biennium

7 7 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet A.981(24) - The Instrument •…provide regulations for: ”.1 the design, construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling, without compromising the safety and operational efficiency of ships;.2 the operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and environmentally sound manner; and.3 the establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship recycling (certification/reporting requirements);”

8 8 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Gjeldende rett •Baselkonvensjonen – Grenseoverskridende transport av farlig avfall –Vedtatt i 1989 –I kraft i 1992 –170 parter –To hovedprinsipper: Prior Informed Concent (PIC), and Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) •BAN amendment (1995) forbyr eksport av farlig avfall fra OECD land til ikke-OECD land. Endringen er ikke i kraft, men gjennomført i EU rett og norsk rett. •EUs transportfordning (Regulation (EEC) No 259/93), etterfulgt av Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006) implementerer Baselkonvensjonen inkludert BAN- amendment •F-loven/avfallsforskriften

9 9 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Gjeldende rett (Basel)- hovedbudskap •Partene til Baselkonvensjonen har ikke foretatt en omforent klargjøring av hvordan skip omfattes av baselkonvensjonen. •EU og Norge: Skip omfattes •Tre nøkkelbegrep: ”Waste”, ”State of export”, ”transboundary movement”. –Skip defineres som avfall når rederen foretar beslutningen om å hugge opp skipet (”discarded” ”waste” –”State of export”. Mange muligheter vedr. skip, men i Baselkonvensjonen knyttes begrepet til hvor skipet var når beslutningen som gjorde skipet til avfall ble truffet. –”Transboundary movement”. Mange muligheter vedrørende skip. •Konklusjon: Skipet må ikke være i en norsk havn før det skal til opphugging i India.

10 10 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Gjeldende rett - Skipssikkerhetsloven Kapittel 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet § 36 Skip som tas endelig ut av drift ”Et skip som skal tas endelig ut av drift skal håndteres på en forsvarlig måte, slik at det ikke oppstår fare for liv, helse eller miljø. Departementet kan gi nærmere forskrift om kravene i første ledd, herunder om meldeplikt og om fjerning av skadelige stoffer om bord.”

11 11 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet The draft Convention •Norway submitted a first draft of a new free- standing Convention to MEPC 54 (March 2006). •Present negotiations on the basis of that proposal. •The draft Convention intends to –solve the identified problem, –set out requirements which can be implemented by industry, and –enforced by authorities, –contain no loopholes, and –be attractive for ratification in order to enter rapid into force.

12 12 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet !!! Please note that this presentation informs on a Convention which is under development. The draft Convention presented at this seminar is expected to be further developed towards the Conference which will adopt the final instrument. !!!

13 13 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Compliance throughout all phases Ship design an construction Ship operation Preparation for recycling Recycling Completed App. 30 years

14 14 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet The draft Convention – Structure Preamble Articles ” establish the main legal mechanisms “ Regulations – ” contains technical requirements” Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3Chapter 4 Appendices – ”contains forms for certificates etc” Guidelines – ”mainly procedures to assist the requirements” Explicit amendment procedure Tacit amendment procedure Part A, B and C

15 15 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Some main principles •Treats all Parties equally (at present) •No more favourable treatment clause •Non-application for warships (UNCLOS Article 236) •A survey and certification regime for ships •An authorization regime for recycling facilities •A system for control, exchange of information, communication of information, reporting and auditing implementation to ensure a high and efficient level of control.

16 16 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet The Convention – Article 3 Application •Applies to ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party •applies to ship recycling facilities operating under the jurisdiction of a Party •Do not apply to warships etc. (UNCLOS art. 236) •Do not apply to ships below 500 GT However, Parties shall adopt measures ensuring that ships act in a manner consistant with the Convention, as far as reasonable and practicable. •No more favourable treatment of non-Party ships

17 17 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Fundamental obligation of a Party & Fundamental right of a Party •Fundamental obligation: –Ensure compliance by its ships by survey and certification (Article 5) –Ensure compliance by its ship recycling facilities by authorization (Article 6) •Fundamental rights: –To inspect ships in its ports (PSC) (Article 8) –To be informed on the basis for the authorization of facilities (by other parties) (Article 7)

18 18 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet A comprehensive system for detection of violations and follow-up actions •Article 9 and 10: –Co-operation among Parties –Investigation and gathering of evidence –Initiate proceedings –Information to Parties involved –Establish sanctions which are adequate in severity to discourage violations of the Convention

19 19 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Certified ship seeks authorized facility Regulation 8 (2): ” If the recycling facility is authorized to handle the hazardous materials identified in the Inventory prior removal shall not be required unless the recycling facility decides otherwise when preparing the Ship Recycling Plan. …..” A ship designed, constructed, operated and prepared for recycling in accordance with the Convention... …should find a recycling facility authorized to recycle that ship Certified Ship Authorized Recycling Facility

20 20 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chain of documentation ensures compliance International Certificate for a Ship Inventory of Hazardous Materials* International Ready for Recycling Certificate Form of the Authorization of Recycling Facilities - Inventory of Hazardous Materials Part I (Ships’ structure and equipment) - Ensure that prohibited materials are not used * Different requirements for new and old ships - Inventory Part I, Part II (operationally generated wastes) and Part III (stores) - Ship Recycling Plan - identifies the capabilities of the facility - Recycling Facility Management Plan Statement of Completion ” From cradle to grave”

21 21 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet The Convention – The regulations •Outlined in the Annex to the Convention: –Chapter 1 General provisions –Chapter 2 Requirements for ships •Part A Design, construction, operation and maintenance of ships •Part B Preparation for ship recycling •Part C Surveys and certification –Chapter 3 Requirements for ship Recycling facilities –Chapter 4 Reporting Requirements

22 22 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 2 – Requirements for Ships Part A – Design, Construction and maintenance of ships •Regulation 4 Controls of ships’ hazardous materials Prohibition and/or restriction on ships and at ports and yards (appendix 1) •Regulation 7 Inventory of Hazardous materials Inventory of Hazardous Materials (part I) approved by the Administration. Difference between new and existing ships

23 23 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B - Preparation for ship recycling •Regulation 8 General requirements –Choose a facility authorized to recycle your ship –Provide the facility with the relevant information, complete the inventory and aquire the ready for recycling certificate •Regulation 9 Recycling Plan –Be developed by the ship recycling facility in consultation with the shipowner; –in the language accepted by the Party of the facility and if its not English, French or Spanish, the plan shall be translated into one of these languages.

24 24 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B – Surveys and certification •Regulation 11 Surveys –initial survey; for new ships: before the ship enters into service, for existing ships: before the inventory is issued; –periodical surveys, on the basis of a five yearly cycle, verifying continuing compliance with the Convention and ensuring that any relevant alterations are reflected on the inventory; –additional surveys, which the shipowner may request to take place at his option after alterations to the structure, machinery or equipment of the ship; and –a final survey prior to the ship being taken out of service, so that all three Parts of the inventory are completed and checked, the Recycling Plan is examined and checked against the inventory, and the Ready for Recycling Certificate is issued. –Surveys may be conducted by officers of the flag Administration, or by surveyors nominated by the Administration, or by surveyors of a Recognized Organization.

25 25 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B – Surveys and certification •Regulation 12 Issuance and endorsement of certificates –International Certificate for a ship Inventory of Hazardous Materials; for new ships: before the ship enters into service for the first time, for existing ships: shall be issued following the survey for the first renewal of the [Safety Construction] Certificate after the entry into force of the Convention; –International Ready for recycling Certificate, shall be issued after the final survey.

26 26 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (1) •Regulation 16Controls on ship recycling facilities Adresses the system a Party has to establish regarding controls on ship recycling facilities, e.g. legislation •Regulation 17Authorization of ship recycling facilities Adresses the system for authorization of ship recycling facilities. Verification of documentation and site inspection. Includes a possibility for delegation to a RO, and addresses period the authorization is valid. •Regulation 18General Requirements The facility shall only recycle ships it is authorized for. Have the documentation available

27 27 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (2) •Regulation 19Recycling Facility Management Plan Sets out requirements for a management plan which i.a. includes: –Identification of roles and responsibilities –A programme for training of workers –An emergency preparedness and response plan –monitoring and record keeping •Regulation 20Prevention of accidents Adresses i.a. establishing procedures for ensuring ”gas-free- for-hot-work” conditions •Regulation 21Safe and environmentally sound removal and management of hazardous materials Includes the general requirement and specific provisions for specific materials. The requirements do not go beyond the facility

28 28 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (3) •Regulation 22Emergency preparedness and response A plan and specific requirements •Regulation 23 Worker safety and training Training programme and specific requirements for personal protective equipment •Regulation 24 Reporting on incidents and chronic effects Reporting on incidents to the competent authority and information on response action taken

29 29 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Appendices •Controls of hazardous materials 1.Controls of Hazardous Materials 2.Inventory of Hazardous Materials •Forms of relevant Certificates and other documents 3.Form of the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials. 4.Form of the International Ready for Recycling Certificate. 5.Form of the authorization of recycling facilities. 6.Form of the Statement of Completion of the Ship Recycling. 7.Reporting forms [to be developed].

30 30 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Draft list of Guidelines to the Convention 1.Guidelines for the Inventory of Hazardous Materials. 2.Guidelines for Survey and Certification 3.Guidelines for Inspection of Ships 4.Guidelines for the Authorization of Ship Recycling Facilities 5.Guidelines for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling 6.Guidelines for the Development of the Ship Recycling Plan

31 31 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Fundamentale punkter som må avklares –The issue of for the recycling of ships flying the flag of a Party State in recycling facilities of a State which is not a Party, if that facility can demonstrate in an acceptable way that it is capable to recycle ships in a safe and environmentally sound manner –the idea of establishing a “transitional period clause” –a new proposal for reporting requirements (an opt. in for explicit acceptance)

32 32 Skipsopphugging, Den norske Sjørettsforening, 10 september 2007 Miljøverndepartementet Fremtidig juridisk regime •Observasjon: Eksisterende og fremtidig internasjonalt regime har ulik tilnærming •Våren Vedtakelse av ny IMO-konvensjon •2009+ Klargjøring av eksisterende juridisk rammeverk (Baselkonvensjonen/EUs transportforordning) •Hjemmel for fremtidige forskrifter er tatt inn skipssikkerhetslovens kap 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet § 36 •En dag i fremtiden - ikrafttredelse av ny IMO konvensjon (med Norge som part….)


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