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Goldstonerapporten Tromsø april 2010 28.04.20101.

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Presentasjon om: "Goldstonerapporten Tromsø april 2010 28.04.20101."— Utskrift av presentasjonen:

1 Goldstonerapporten Tromsø april

2 INNLEDNING - RAMMER

3 Rapporten (para1678) • ”1678. When the Mission conducted its first visit to the Gaza Strip in early June 2009, almost five months had passed since the end of the Israeli military operations. The devastating effects of the operations on the population were, however, unequivocally manifest. In addition to the visible destruc- tion of houses, factories, wells, schools, hospitals, police stations and other public buildings, the sight of families, including the elderly and children, still living amid the rubble of their former dwellings ….”

4 Kommisjonen • Dommer Richard Goldstone, former judge of the Constitutional Court of South Africa and former Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, • Professor Christine Chinkin, Professor of International Law at the London School of Economics and Political Science, who was a member of the high-level fact-finding mission to Beit Hanoun (2008); • Advokat Hina Jilani, Advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and former Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights defenders, who was a member of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (2004); • Oberst Desmond Travers, a former Officer in Ireland’s Defence Forces and member of the Board of Directors of the Institute for International Criminal Investigations

5 Mandatet (para. 151) “to investigate all violations of international human rights law and international humanita- rian law that might have been committed at any time in the context of the military operations that were conducted in Gaza during the period from 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009, whether before, during or after.”

6 Tolkning av mandatet (para 152 og 4) “To implement its mandate, the Mission determined that it was required to consider any actions by all parties that might have constituted violations of international human rights law or international humanitarian law. The mandate also required it to review related actions in the entire Occupied Palestinian Territory and Israel.” “The Mission interpreted the mandate as requiring it to place the civilian population of the region at the centre of its concerns regarding the violations of international law.”

7 Regelverket • Internasjonal rett generelt – FNs charter – Internasjonal humanitærrett – Internasjonale menneskerettigheter – Internasjonal strafferett

8 Metodologi • Undersøkte alle påstander iht. mandatet – Utvalgte hendelser • Informasjonsinnhenting – Rapporter – Intervjuer med ofre, vitner og andre (188) – Åstedsundersøkelser – Undersøkelser av videoer, billedmateriale og satelittbilder – Åstedsundersøkelser – Kriminaltekniske undersøkelser av våpenbruk – Møter med mange involverte – ”notes verbales” til FN-stater og FN-organer – Oppfordring til inngi rapporter (130) – Offentlige høringer

9 Forholdet til myndighetene • Palestinske (para 9) – “The Mission has enjoyed the support and cooperation of the Palestinian Authority and of the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. Due to the lack of cooperation from the Israeli Government, the Mission was unable to meet members of the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank.”

10 Forholdet til myndighetene (2) • Israelske (para 162) – “The Government of Israel, however, refused to cooperate with the Mission at three levels: • (a) it refused to meet the Mission and to provide access to Government officials, including military, and documentation; • (b) it precluded the Mission from travelling to Israel in order to meet with Israeli victims, witnesses, members of civil society and NGOs; and • (c) it prevented the Mission from travelling to the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, to meet members of the Palestinian Authority and Palestinian victims,witnesses, non-governmental or civil society organizations living or located in the West Bank”

11 KONKLUSJONER

12 From the facts gathered, the Mission found that the following grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention were committed by Israeli forces in Gaza: willful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, and extensive destruction of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly. As grave breaches these acts give rise to individual criminal responsibility. The Mission notes that the use of human shields also constitutes a war crime under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (para 1732)

13 Whatever violations of international humanitarian and human rights law may have beencommitted, the systematic and deliberate nature of the activities described in this report leave theMission in no doubt that responsibility lies in the first place with those who designed, planned, ordered and oversaw the operations. (para 1692)

14 Konklusjoner • Blokaden (para ) – “326. The Mission holds the view that Israel continues to be duty-bound under the Fourth Geneva Convention and to the full extent of the means available to it to ensure the supply of foodstuff, medical and hospital items and others to meet the humanitarian needs of the population of the Gaza Strip without qualification.”

15 Konklusjoner (2 a) • Angrep på offentlige bygninger og personer, herunder politiet (para 364 – 436) – Parlamentet/det sentrale fengsel m.v. • “387. (..) On the information available to it, the Mission finds that the attacks on these buildings constituted deliberate attacks on civilian objects in violation of the rule of customary international humanitarian law whereby attacks must be strictly limited to military objectives. •, 388. In the Mission's view these facts further indicate the commission of the grave breach of extensive destruction of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly, as defined in article 147 of the Fourth Geneva Convention

16 Parlamentet

17 Innenriksministeriet

18 Konklusjoner (2b) • Politiet – “435. From the facts available to it, the Mission finds that the deliberate killing of 99 members of the police at the police headquarters and three police stations 294 during the first minutes of the military operations, while they were engaged in civilian tasks inside civilian police facilities, constitutes an attack which failed to strike an acceptable balance between the direct military advantage anticipated (i.e. the killing of those policemen who may have been members of Palestinian armed groups) and the loss of civilian life (i.e. the other policemen killed and members of the public who would inevitably have been present or in the vicinity). The attacks on the Arafat City police headquarters and the Abbas Street police station, al-Tuffah police station and the Deir al-Balah investigative police station constituted disproportionate attacks in violation of customary international humanitarian law From the facts available to it, the Mission further believes that there has been a violationof the inherent right to life of those members of the police killed in the attacks of 27 December2007 who were not members of armed groups by depriving them arbitrarily of their life inviolation of article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.”

19 Politiskolen

20 Konklusjoner (3a) • Palestinske væpnede gruppers plikt til å ta nødvendige forholdsregler for å beskytte sivil befolkning og sivile ”objekter” (para 437 – 496) – “492. From the information available to it, the Mission found no evidence to suggest that Palestinian armed groups either directed civilians to areas where attacks were being launched or forced civilians to remain within the vicinity of the attacks.” – “493. The reports received by the Mission suggest that it is likely that the Palestinian armed groups did not at all times adequately distinguish themselves from the civilian population among whom the hostilities were being conducted.(…)” – “494. The conduct of hostilities in built-up areas does not, of itself, constitute a violation of international law. However, launching attacks - whether of rockets and mortars at the population of southern Israel or at the Israeli armed forces inside Gaza - close to civilian or protected buildings constitutes a failure to take all feasible precautions. (…)”

21 Konklusjoner (3b) – “495. Although the situations investigated by the Mission did not establish the use of mosques for military purposes or to shield military activities, the Mission cannot exclude that this might have occurred in other cases. As far as hospitals and United Nations facilities are concerned, the Mission found that it could not exclude that Palestinian armed groups engaged in combat activities in the vicinity of these protected sites. The Mission wishes to emphasize that the launching of attacks from or in the vicinity of civilian buildings and protected areas are serious violations of the obligation on the armed groups to take constant care to protect civilians from the inherent dangers created by military operations.”

22 Konklusjoner (4) • Israels plikt til å ta nødvendige tiltak for beskytte sivile personer og ”objekter” (para 497 – 650) – Advarsler – Angrepet på UNRWA – Al-Qudshospitalet – Al-Wafahospitalet

23 Konklusjoner (4B) • The Mission, therefore, concludes on the basis of the information it received and in the absence of any credible refuting evidence that Israeli armed forces violated the customary international law requirement to take all feasible precautions in the choice of means and method of attack with a view to avoiding and in any event minimizing incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects as reflected in article 57 (2) (a) (ii) of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions. (para 593)

24 Røde Korssykehuset

25 Røde Korssykehuset

26 Islamske universitet

27 Konklusjoner (5) • Manglende skille mellom militære og sivile ved angrep som medfører tap av liv og skader på sivile (para 651 – 701) – Al-Fakhuragata • (al-Deeb familien) • UNRWA-skolen

28 Al-Fakhuragata

29

30 Konklusjoner (6) • Overlagte angrep på sivile (para 702 – 881) – Angrep på hus i Zeyton-området • Samouni-familien • Hindring av hjelpearbeid – Drap av personer på flukt • Drap på Iyad al-Samouni • Drap av Ibrahim Juha • Drap avMajda og Rayya Hajaj • Drap på Muhammed Hajii, Shahd Hajiii og Ola Masood Arafat • Drap på Amal, Souad, Samar • Bu Halima familien – Angrepet på al-Maquadahmoskeen – Angrepet på al-Dayafamiliens hus – Angrep på Abd al-Dayems kondolansetelt

31 Drepte i Samounifamilien

32 Rakett som traff Samounifamilien

33 Al Maquadhamooskeen

34 Konklusjoner (7) • Våpenbruk (para 882 – 904) – Hvitt fosfor – DIME – Utarmet uran – Flechettegranater

35 Hvitt fosforskader på skolen i Beit Lahia

36 Konklusjoner (8) • Angrep på grunnlaget for sivilt liv i Gaza (para 909 – 1027) – Industriell infrastruktur – Matproduksjon – Vanntilførsel – Kloakkanlegg – Hus

37 Industri

38 Industri

39 Sementfabrikk i Nordgaza

40 Sementfabrikk i Nordgaza

41 Engang et mangeetasjes bolighus

42 Ødeleggelser i Nordgaza

43 Ødeleggelser i Nordgaza

44 Konklusjoner (9) • Bruk av sivile som levende skjold (Para ) – Majdi Abd Rabbo – Abbas Ahmad Ibrahim Halawa – Mohammoud Abd Rabbo al-Airami – AD/

45 Konklusjoner (10) • Ulovlige frihetsberøvelser (para 1103 – 1173) • Mål og strategi for det israelske angrepet på Gaza ( ) – Dahiadoktrinen • Virkninger for sivilbefolkningen av blokaden og de militære operasjoner i lys av menneskerettighetene (para 1213 – 1329) • Gilad Shalit

46 Konklusjoner (11) • Rakettangrepene mot Israel (para 1627 – 1724) – “1724. From the facts available, the Mission finds that the rocket and mortars attacks, launched by Palestinian armed groups in Gaza, have caused terror in the affected communities of southern Israel and in Israel as a whole. Furthermore, it is the Mission’s view that the mortars and rockets are uncontrolled and uncontrollable, respectively. This indicates the commission of an indiscriminate attack on the civilian population of southern Israel, a war crime, and may amount to crimes against humanity. These attacks have caused loss of life and physical and mental injury to civilians and damage to private houses, religious buildings and property and have eroded the economic and cultural life of the affected communities. ”

47 Anbefalinger • UNHRC må ta rapporten til etterretning og iverksette anbefalingene. Varsle Sikkerhets- rådet og ICC • Ytterligere internasjonal uavhengig etterforskning i regi av Sikkerhetsrådet • Partene må respektere folkeretten • Det internasjonale samfunn må etterforske og straffeforfølge i samsvar med universell jurisdiksjon

48 “The Mission is firmly convinced that justice and respect for the rule of law are the indispensable basis for peace. The prolonged situation of impunity has created a justice crisis in the OPT that warrants action.” (para 1755).


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